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Early Social Development Notes

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PSY 0310
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3/18 Early Social Development • What determines a child’s interactions? o Emotion, personality, attachment, self, peer relationships, gender Psychoanalytic Theories • Freud: behavior is driven by the need to satisfy drives or motives that are largely unconscious (sex/aggression) • Erikson: development is driven by a series of age-related tasks that individuals must resolve to achieve healthy development • Sigmund Freud • Neurologist, founder of developmental theory • Contributions: o Role of early experiences on adulthood o Discovery of the unconscious; was initially rejected because it can’t be studied o Role of emotional relationships in development • Features: o Five determined stages that dictate how you are as an adult o Motivation springs from drives and reduction of these drives o Aspects of the mind:  Id: most primitive, pleasure principle  Superego: conscience that enables a child to control behavior, internalization of parents’ standards  Ego: link to the external world of reality, compromises o People who have psychological issues don’t have a developed ego  E.g. priests who become pedophiles 3/18 o “Psychosexual” because it says that drives are in certain parts of the body • Stages: o Oral (birth-1 yr.): satisfaction via oral pleasure (sucking); only have id  Overindulgence: overeating, smoking, rape, etc.  Fixation: creates guilt in baby; chewing pens and smoking  Impact: moms stopped breastfeeding, prevented babies from sucking o Anal (1-3 yrs.): pleasure derived from defecation; child begins to have ego/superego  Overindulgence (no rules): selfish, nasty, mean  Fixation (too strict): anal retentive, adults who feel too much guilt, OCD o Phallic (3-6 yrs.): children begin to have sexual urges and curiosity about opposite gender; true development of the superego  Parents need to take a moderate approach to children’s questions so that children will be comfortable with sex later in life • Erik Erikson • Started one of the first preschools ever at Pitt • Eight stages characterized by crises that must be resovled o Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 yr.)  Bond between mom and baby makes the child feel secure  Need to develop both trustfulness and trustworthiness  Requires warm, constant, reliable caregiving  E.g. Orphanages and failure to thrive babies • Too many different people working with subdivided tasks 3/18 • Not enough holding and playing, so babies can’t form emotional bonds o Autonomy vs. Shame (118 mo.-3 yrs.)  Develops walking and talking  Leads to independence  May also lead to disagreements with parents, which causes shame  Parents need to establish a balance between strictness and permissiveness so that their kids can become independent o Initiative vs. Guilt (4 yrs.-6 yrs.)  Child begins modeling behaviors  Child can also begin to set and achieve goals  This is when rules and standards are internalized Learning Theories • Reaction to Freud and Erikson’s psychoanalytic ideas • Emphasized role of external factors on personality and social behavior • Watson: Behaviorism o Development is determined by social environment o Ignored mental states and talked about conditioning o “Little Albert” experiment • Skinner: Operant Conditioning o Behavior is under environmental control o We tend to repeat behaviors that have favorable outcomes (reinforcement) and suppress those with unfavorable outcomes (punishment) o Showed that receiving attention is a powerful reinforce  “Time outs” focus on withdrawal of attention 3/18 o “I want a cookie” example; occasional reinforcement leads to higher likelihood of the behavior returning  This is why consistency is so important in parenting o Lead to the idea of behavior modification therapy o **Ignores the notion of genetics Social/Cognitive Learning Theory • Bandura • Emphasis on observation and imitation without reinforcement • Bobo doll experiment o Kids were shown a movie with aggressive behavior o Kids modeled behavior o This means that a lot of what we do develops from watching parents • Should we hit kids? o No, it teaches them that anger can be taken out physically o Some evidence that controlled (not angry) hitting may help to get their attention • Implications for TV o After watching violence, kids act violent o Kids who watch positive shows act nicer o No evidence for a long term impact if it isn’t a constant thing o If violence is watched repetitively, children become too desensitized and don’t care as much when they see or do violent things in the real world o This can be overwritten by parental influence and their environment Problems with Theories… • None address the child o Are kids more genetically predisposed t being, sad, happy, etc.? 3/18 • Social development evolves over t
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