Males that find and dig down to hidden virgin females may have an advantage in mating with those females right after they emerge. This advantage would be particularly high if after mating, the freshly emerged female was no longer receptive. Hypothesis: males that search and detect hidden virgin females and mate with them right after emergence have a mating advantage because females are no longer receptive after mating for the first time. Predictions: given males" search for virgins, females either mate just once in her lifetime or use the sperm of her first partner to fertilize her eggs. Males will not try to mate with females that had already mated. Males should not let competitor males gain access to receptive females if they can prevent it. Assumptions: males are in a race to inseminate as many females as possible to increase their reproductive success. Nesting and flower-visiting females are rarely pursued by sexually motivated males.