CHM 11200 Lecture 4: Lecture 4 1192017

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8 Feb 2017
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Lecture #4 1/19/2017
Wednesday, February 08, 2017
12:32 PM
Properties of liquids
Physical properties
o Surface tension
Amount of energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount
Behave like a stretched membrane
Greater intermolecular forces ==> higher surface tension
Higher temperature leads to lower surface tension
Surfactant
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
o Dissolves oil and gets carried in the water
Decrease surface tension
Capillary action- draws up against gravity's force
Meniscus
Concave or convex made by intermolecular forces
o Concave surface occurs when intermolecular forces between liquid and glass are greater
than intermolecular forces among the liquid molecules
o Convex surface occurs when the intermolecular forces between the liquid and glass are less
than intermolecular forces among the liquid molecules
Viscosity
Resistance to flow
o Generally viscosity of liquid is low
o Depend on size and intermolecular force strength
o Large molecules get tangled in each other to increase viscosity
o Generally decreases when temperature increases
Liquid in a closed container
Some of liquid evaporates (some will recondense)
Equilibrium reached eventually
Net number of gas molecules remain constant
Vapor pressure
Partial pressure of gas in equilibrium with a liquid (in a closed container)
VP increases as temperature increases
Higher temperature ==> higher kinetic energy ==> moves into gas phase more easily
1 atm line tells the temperature something boils at ==> normal boiling point
Phase changes
Changes in state
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