CHM 25500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 32: Thiol, Acid Dissociation Constant, Hydrogen Bond

33 views1 pages
CHM 255 - Lecture 32 - Alcohols and Thiols
Definitions
Alcohols are compounds that contain hydroxyl groups (OH) attached to an sp3
hybridized carbon
Thiols are compounds that contain sulfhydryl groups (SH) attached to an sp3
carbon
Nomenclature
The parent chain in an alcohol is the longest chain that contains the hydroxyl
group
The ‘e’ on the end of the name of the alkane is replaced with ‘ol’
Hydroxyl groups always take precedence over other groups (including double
and triple bonds) when numbering the carbons
When numbering cyclic alcohols the numbering always starts with the
carbon attached to the hydroxyl group
Physical Properties
When compared to simple hydrocarbons, alcohols have relatively high boiling
points for their molecular weights
This is because of the type of intermolecular interactions that take place
between the molecules
In simple hydrocarbons, there are only induced dipole interactions between the
molecules
In alcohols, however, there are induced dipole interactions as well as permanent
dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding that occur between the
molecules
Acidity of Alcohols and Thiols
Alcohols can function as either weak acids or weak bases
Most alcohols have a pKa of around 16-18
When alcohols are deprotonated it results in an alkoxide ion (strong base)
Alcohols may be protonated by strong acids
When this happens water is produced, which is a very effective leaving
group
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 1 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class