Technological medicine: the changing world of doctors and patients. Environmentalist concept health and illness linked to changing relationships with the environment: air, water, and places. Humoral theory life forces of the body should be in balance: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile: general categories of sickness, ex. Fevers: dysfunction in body organs (dysenteries = gut, lung (pleurisies, eyes (ophthalmies) Andreas vesalius: study the body through autopsy to learn how diseases develop, challenge sacred notions of the body, pretty accurate, not easy to get the bodies. Changing notions of the body and personal ownership and autonomy. Political liberalism: moral philosophy based on liberty and equality, replace state religion, hereditary titles, monarchy, divine right, self-determination rather than destiny. Relationship changes when evidence of illness is uncovered. Patient"s narrative and consultation given less meaning. Shift from menial and lower status to a special skill with instrumentation.