BIO 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Nuclear Membrane, Cytoplasm, Apoptosis

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Nucleotide= subunit: phosphate, sugar, a,t,g,c, phosphate and sugar make up the backbone of dna. Antiparallel strands: one end starts with phosphate other strand starts with sugar on same end. Specific sequence of nucleotide= code to make proteins for the cell (codon) Cell division needed for growth, development, and repair in multicellular organism: use mitotic cell division, differentiated cell- expressing genes that the tissue it is in. Other cells capable of dividing: ex: liver or skin cells, capable of dividing but only in specific ways. Permanently differentiated cells: ex: heart cell or brain cell, can"t make protein brain cell needs from the heart and vis versa. Offspring produced by the fusion of gametes from 2 adults. Genetically identical offspring of the parent: occurs in asexual repro, does not provide genetic variability, not a good thing, bacteria and yeast repro asexually. Dna wrapped around histones proteins in eukaryotic cells. 2 ends of chromosomes have telomeres- essential for chromosome stability.