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Lecture 4

NUR 323 Lecture 4: Infant Nutrition

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NUR 323

Infant Nutrition Breastfeeding • Optimal method of infant feeding - Bacteriologically safe - Fresh - Readily available - Uniquely balanced to meet infant needs Benefits of breastfeeding • Benefits for mothers - Decreased risk of breast, ovarian, uterine cancer - Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes - Decreased risk of post-partum hemorrhage - Enhanced weight loss - Enhanced bonding with infant - Increased bone density • Benefits for infants - Enhanced immunity (fewer infections including OM, pneumonia, UTI, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis) - Maturation of GI tract and enhanced jaw development - Decreased risk of SIDS - Decreased risk of childhood obesity - Decreased risk of type 1DM - Protective effects against certain childhood cancers Contraindications to breastfeeding • Maternal HIV infection or active TB • Maternal active herpes lesions on nipples • Mothers being treated with methotrexate or lithium • Mothers exposed to radioactive isotopes • Infants with galactosemis • Note: PKU is not an absolute contraindication to breastfeeding but will need close monitoring/limited amounts of breastmilk Physiology of lactation • Lactogenesis - Process by which the breasts secrete milk - Dependent on release of prolactin (anterior pituitary) and oxytocin (posterior pituitary) o Prolactin = milk production o Oxytocin = milk letdown - Begins after delivery of placenta o Decreases in progesterone and estrogen o Increase in prolactin
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