PT 503L Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Goniometer, Upper Guelders, Extensor Digitorum Muscle
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PT 503 Physical Therapy Processes I
Principles of Measurement
Upper Quarter ROM and Manual Muscle Testing:
The Wrist and Hand
a. Appropriate planes and axes for each wrist and hand motion.
b. Expected normal ranges and end-feels.
a. Testing positions used for each UE joint motion
b. Testing position corresponding to muscle grade
3. Plan muscle testing and goniometric measurements of the wrist and hand that
are organized by body position.
4. Perform muscle testing and goniometric measurement of strength and range
of motion of the wrist and hand.
a. Clear explanation
b. Proper starting position
c. Adequate stabilization/ application of force
d. Use of appropriate testing motion
e. Accurately align goniometer and correct reading/ recording.
Manual Muscle Testing
Dale Avers, PT, DPT, PhD, FAPTA and Marybeth Brown, PT, PhD, FACSM, FAPTA. Daniels and
Worthingham's Muscle Testing, 10th Edition, 2019
Wrist Flexion p. 169 – 173
Prime movers: Flexor carpi radialis; Flexor carpi ulnaris
Wrist Extension p. 174 – 178
Prime Movers: Extensor carpi radialis longus; extensor carpi radialis brevis; extensor carpi
Goniometry: The Hand
When performing a goniometric measurement
• Position patient appropriately and drape as needed
• Assess PROM and end feel
• Mentally estimate range
• Align goniometer: axis (fulcrum); stationary arm; movement arm
• Move joint through passive range and apply overpressure; measure
• Accurately record PROM findings and end feel
Norkin, Cynthia and White, Joyce. Measurement of Joint Motion, 5th edition