PT 503L Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Goniometer, Upper Guelders, Brachialis Muscle
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PT 503 Physical Therapy Processes I
Principles of Measurement
Upper Quarter ROM and Manual Muscle Testing:
The Elbow and Forearm
a. Appropriate planes and axes for each upper extremity motion.
b. Expected normal ranges and end-feels.
a. Testing positions used for each UE joint motion
b. Testing position corresponding to muscle grade
3. Plan muscle testing and goniometric measurements of the elbow and forearm that are
organized by body position.
4. Perform muscle testing and goniometric measurement of strength and range of motion of
the elbow and forearm.
a. Clear explanation
b. Proper starting position
c. Adequate stabilization/ application of force
d. Use of appropriate testing motion
e. Accurately align goniometer and correct reading/ recording.
Norkin, Cynthia and White, Joyce. Measurement of Joint Motion, 5th edition
When performing a goniometric measurement
• Position patient appropriately and drape as needed
• Assess PROM and end feel
• Mentally estimate range
• Align goniometer: axis (fulcrum); stationary arm; movement arm
• Move joint through passive range and apply overpressure; measure
• Accurately record PROM findings and end feel