Enzymes/Cellular Respiration Lecture for Bio 105

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Radford University
BIOL - Biology
BIOL 105
Gregory Zagursky

Biology 105-Enzymes Enzymes 1) enzymes allow reactions to occur at lower temperature because they lower the activation energy required 2) enzymes are catalysts, they speed up reactions that occur anyway 3) enzymes are not used up in the reaction, they aren’t reactants they are used again over and over 4) enzymes are proteins, 3d shape is critical to function a specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction enzymes are selective this selectivity determines which chemical reactions occur in a cell in the 3d shape of a protein there is an active site that fits its substrate one enzyme for each substrate the active site changes or distorts bonds in the substrate called the induced fit model both the enzyme and substrate change shape when they bond together stresses the bonds the cellular environment affects enzyme activity(remember enzymes are proteins) enzyme activity influenced by , temperature, ph., salt concentration these things can denature proteins(cause breakdown of h bonds) some enzymes require nonprotein cofactors some cofactors are organic molecules called coenzymes (vitamins) enzyme regulation 1) increase or decrease the number of enzyme molecules that are synthesized, controlled by genes 2) feedback inhibition, the product inhibits an enzyme involved in its production, negative feedback enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action inhibitors interfere with enzymes a competitive inhibitor takes the place of a substrate in the active site a noncompetitive inhibitor alters an enzymes function by changing its shape many poisons, pesticides and drugs are enzyme inhibitors certain pesticides are toxic to insects because they inhibit key enzymes in the nervous
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