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Lecture 2

BIOL 105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Scientific Method, Falsifiability, Discovery Science

3 pages100 viewsSpring 2013

BIOL - Biology
Course Code
BIOL 105
Gregory Zagursky

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The Process of Science
1) Goal of science
Make accurate predictions
Establish cause and effect relationships
o Ex. If you dam this creek trout will not reproduce
Make models that explain the natural world
o Weather
Applied science
o Produce useful products
2) Science is a process used to explain natural events
A process for solving problems
A process to understand natural phenomena
Laws, principles and rules
o Developed to explain nature
Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature
1) Discovery science
In discovery science
o Scientists describe some aspect of the world and use
inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions
2) Hypothesis-Based science
In hypothesis based science
o Scientists attempt to explain observations by testing
With Hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses
Hypothesis based science involves
Observations, questions, hypotheses as tentative answers to
Deductions leading to predictions, and then tests of
predictions to see if a hypothesis is falsifiable
The scientific method
The procedures that scientists must use to arrive at valid conclusions
Separates scientific fields of study from all others
1) Observation
Recognize a problem or question
Collect empirical “observational” evidence
Library work
2) Question formula
Clearly identify the problem
Is answering this question of some value?
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