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Lecture 2

BIOL 105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Scientific Method, Falsifiability, Discovery Science

3 pages100 viewsSpring 2013

Department
BIOL - Biology
Course Code
BIOL 105
Professor
Gregory Zagursky
Lecture
2

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The Process of Science
1) Goal of science
Make accurate predictions
Establish cause and effect relationships
o Ex. If you dam this creek trout will not reproduce
Make models that explain the natural world
o Weather
Applied science
o Produce useful products
2) Science is a process used to explain natural events
A process for solving problems
A process to understand natural phenomena
Laws, principles and rules
o Developed to explain nature
Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature
1) Discovery science
In discovery science
o Scientists describe some aspect of the world and use
inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions
2) Hypothesis-Based science
In hypothesis based science
o Scientists attempt to explain observations by testing
hypotheses
With Hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses
Hypothesis based science involves
Observations, questions, hypotheses as tentative answers to
questions
Deductions leading to predictions, and then tests of
predictions to see if a hypothesis is falsifiable
The scientific method
The procedures that scientists must use to arrive at valid conclusions
Separates scientific fields of study from all others
1) Observation
Recognize a problem or question
Collect empirical “observational” evidence
Library work
2) Question formula
Clearly identify the problem
Is answering this question of some value?
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