SOC 08221 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Act Alliance, Symbolic Ethnicity, White Privilege

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Racism
A system of advantage and disadvantages based on race
Ideologies can make it difficult to accept that racial inequality continues
Race
Social construction that uses certain traits to organize people into hierarchies
Traits may be physical, religious, cultural, or socioeconomic
Constructions entrenched in social structures and organizations
Ethnicity
Cultural background, often tied to nationality of origin and or the culture practiced by
the individual and his or her family of origin
May be associated with languages, surnames, holidays, and clothing styles.
Symbolic ethnicity
An ethnicity that isn’t particularly salient in an individual’s daily life and becomes
relevant only at certain symbolic times or events
Minority Group
A group that doesn’t hold a sizable share of power and resources in a society not size;
Women are a numerical majority but lack the income and political power of men
People of color are the majority globally, but they hold minority status in the United
States.
Immigration patterns
U.S. view of immigrants has shifted based on time period and race/country of
origin
Racialization: caricatures in popular media
Earl immigration laws explicitly racist
DREAM Act
Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors
Could have prevented deportation of 2 million foreign-born people raised in United States
Granted a 6-year period to either join the military or attend college.
Racialization
The process by which a society incorporates and clearly demarcates individuals who
fit a certain profile into a particle racial group.
Tokenistic fallacy
The common misunderstanding that when a small number of persons from minority
group become successful in a society there must no longer be racism in that society
Even among socioeconomically similar individuals, the U.S. White majority enjoys
racial privilege in income and wealth
Examples: Oprah, Barack Obama
Individual discrimination
Discrimination in which actors carry out their own intentions to exclude based on race,
as opposed to being explicitly supported in doing so or directed to do so by an
organization.
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