SOC 08221 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Motherhood Penalty, Gender Identity, Long Hair

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Intersectional approach: a sociological approach that examines how gender a social category
intersects with other social statuses such as race, class, and sexuality.
Gender: The social meanings layered on top of sex categories
- Pink as feminine, blue as masculine
- Long hair as feminine, short hair as masculine
- Burly as masculine, petite as feminine
Gender and Intersectionality
- Gender can be examined simultaneously with other identities (Race, social class, and
Sexual dimorphism: the belief that there are two discrete types of people which is male and
female who can be distinguished of the basis of real, objective, biological criteria.
Not representative of objective reality
- Intersexed individuals are born with anatomical ambiguity in their biological sex
Often reinforced by social norms
Intersex: born with some range of biological conditions that have sex category ambiguous
Transgender: gender identity differs from the sex category assigned at birth.
Cisgender: Gender identity matches the sex category assigned at birth.
Gender Inequality: The way in which the meanings assigned to sex and gender as social
categories create disparities in resources such as income, power, and status.
Determining gender is the process of placing someone in a gender category
Gender age gap is the gap in earnings between women and men, usually expressed as a
percentage or proportion of what women are paid relative to their male equal equivalents.
Motherhood penalty is when mothers are payed less than both men and women without
Secondary shift is unpaid housework and childcare done primarily by women in addition to
paid work outside the home
Social role is a set of expectations attached to a particular status or position in society
Sex role is a set of expectations attached to a particular sex category either male or female
Instrumental is orientated toward goals and tasks.
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