SPED 08130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Reading Disability, Learned Helplessness, Graphic OrganizerPremium

11 pages46 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Special Education Services and Instruction
Course Code
SPED 08130
Professor
Randel
Lecture
6

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Chapter 6: Learning Disabilities
Section 1- Learning Disabilities Defined
Individuals with learning disabilities have a wide range of skills and abilities, excelling in
some and struggling with others
Learning disabilities: A disability of unexpected underachievement typically involving reading
that is resistant to traditional instruction
Unexpected underachievement: A defining characteristic of learning disabilities; poor school
performance that cannot be explained by other abilities or potential
Resistant to treatment or resistant to instruction: a defining characteristic of learning
disabilities; validated methods typically applied general education settings are not effective to
cause sufficient learning
Lack of intensive instruction will lead to problems, students won’t acquire important skills at
the rate or levels of their classmates
Many students need more instruction earlier before years of failure compound the problem of
not learning foundational skills on time and well— students with learning disabilities should
receive intensive instruction as soon as possible
Traditional way to identify a learning disability requires students to show a significant gap
between ability and academic achievement
IQ/ Achievement discrepancy: the traditional criterion used for learning disabilities
identification; two-year difference between potential or expected performance (based on a
score on a test of intelligence [IQ] and a score from an achievement test)
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Multi-tiered framework: an approach that provides increasingly intensive levels of support and
assistance for academic learning and behavior management (IDEA regulations in 2006
encouraged the use of this)
Response to intervention (RTI): a multi-tiered framework of increasingly intensive
interventions and supports to address academic difficulties; used to identify students with
learning disabilities— combines assessment and instruction
Curriculum based measurement (CBM): a type of progress monitoring; evaluates learning
frequently (ex weekly, monthly) by collecting data directly from academic subjects across a
curriculum
Universal screening (health): testing of everyone, particularly newborns, to determine
existence or risk of disability
CBM data collected during the RTI process provides teachers with helpful guidance for
instruction and psychologists with information used for diagnosis
Definitions of learning disabilities reflect beliefs about possible causes and treatments
DEFINITIONS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES CHART ON PG 139
Section 2- Types of Learning Disabilities
The most common type is reading/learning disabilities
Might have average intelligence but academically be struggling
Dual discrepancy: both rate of learning and current performance are substantially below that of
classmates
For many students their learning disabilities are seen in every aspect of their academic and
social behaviors
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Learning disabilities now focus particularly on academic manifestations like reading, writing,
and mathematics
Learning disabilities includes groups of learners who show a wide range of strengths and
abilities, approaching learning in numerous ways
Heterogeneity: Variation among members in a group
Two groups with specific problem areas-
Reading/learning disabilities: a condition in which a student’s learning disability is most
significant in reading
Mathematics/learning disabilities: a condition in which a student’s learning disability is
most significant in areas of mathematics — most have a reading disability but some do not
Section 3- Characteristics
Learning disabilities can be described by three defining general characteristics
Disability does not present physical differences immediately signal a need for help
Once a disability is identified, very specific problems like reading fluency skills or sentence
writing can be addressed by the school
Direct or explicit instruction: direct teaching of the specific skills that make up the
instructional target
Keystone academic skills: the three manifestation areas— reading, writing, and mathematics—
of learning disabilities
Emphasis on academics shows a shift away from discrepancy between IQ and achievement as
the criterion for learning disabilities
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