SPED 08130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Behaviour Therapy, AttentionPremium

9 pages59 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Special Education Services and Instruction
Course Code
SPED 08130
Professor
Randel
Lecture
7

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Chapter 7 Notes: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Section 1- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Described
Student with ADHD demonstrate inattention, hyperactivity, and/ or impulsivity to such an
extent that their schoolwork is affected
Many people refer to ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) as ADD (attention deficit
disorder) which is not the medically correct term (ADHD is)
No separate category for ADHD in IDEA, students who have ADHD must qualify under the
“other health impairment” category for special education services
Most accepted definition of ADHD is developed by American Psychiatric Association (APA)
in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, this has a stronger medical theme
for diagnosis than the federal criteria
When inattention, excessive activity, or impulsivity is more frequent or severe than usually
observed ADHD is present in that individual— only when they are not developmentally
appropriate and interfere with an individual’s social, academic, or occupational performance
Symptoms of ADHD (condition) must have been present before age 12, have endured for at
least 6 months, and occur in two or more settings
Student display either:
greater than or equal to 6 symptoms of inattention
greater than or equal to 6 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity (H-I)
greater than or equal to 6 symptoms each for both inattention and H-I
Behavior must:
have persisted greater than or equal to 6 months
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have been present before age 12
be present in greater than or equal to 2 settings
be severe enough to affect social, academic, or occupational performance
not be caused by other disorders
Section 2- Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders
Students with ADHD may demonstrate inattentiveness, or hyperactivity and impulsivity
Individuals with ADHD can display symptoms of extreme inattention, hyperactivity and
impulsivity, or a combination of traits
Inattention: Inability to pay attention or focus— commonly seen by parents and teachers,
especially when sustained effort is required
Hyperactivity: Impaired ability to sit or concentrate for long periods of time— commonly
associated to ADHD
Research shows that hyperactivity diminishes with age as students learn to better control their
behavior— but compared to peers still show higher levels of restlessness and such
Impulsivity: Impaired ability to control or inhibit one’s own behavior
Students with impulsivity may interrupt conversations, random comments made, or state any
thought that comes to mind
Often do things without forethought so these students are at higher risk for taking part in
harmful or dangerous behaviors like running into the street without looking both ways,
jumping off playground equipments, trying drugs without knowing the possible consequences
ADHD specifiers— inattentive presentation, hyperactive-impulsive presentation, and
combined presentation (goes into greater detail on pg 171 of text)
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Section 3- Characteristics
Problems with executive functions are typical for students with ADHD and can negatively
affect academics, behavior, and social skills
Three defining traits of ADHD: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity— related to
executive functions
Executive functions: the cognitive abilities that enable us to plan, to self-regulate, to engage in
goal-directed activities— also control ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors
Students with ADHD spend less time engaged in academic activities/ tasks
Students with ADHD attribute accomplishments to external factors, less persistent, expend less
effort, and take less enjoyment in learning— resulting in lower grades and increased risk for
school failure
have trouble studying for long periods of time
tend to be disorganized and forgetful
produce sloppy, careless, or incomplete assignments
These students can cause frustration for their teachers
As ADHD characteristics increase the potential for positive social interactions decreases—
often judge themselves as social failure and engage in more solitary activities (independent)
leading to increased alienation and withdrawn of social interaction
Section 4- Challenges and Their Solutions
A combination of behavioral therapy and medication is an effective treatment option for most
students with ADHD
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