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Lecture 6

SPED 08130 Lecture 6: Chapter 6 Notes

11 Pages

SPED - Special Education
Course Code
SPED 08130

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find more resources at Chapter 6: Learning Disabilities Section 1- Learning Disabilities Defined • Individuals with learning disabilities have a wide range of skills and abilities, excelling in some and struggling with others • Learning disabilities:Adisability of unexpected underachievement typically involving reading that is resistant to traditional instruction • Unexpected underachievement:Adefining characteristic of learning disabilities; poor school performance that cannot be explained by other abilities or potential • Resistant to treatment or resistant to instruction: a defining characteristic of learning disabilities; validated methods typically applied general education settings are not effective to cause sufficient learning • Lack of intensive instruction will lead to problems, students won’t acquire important skills at the rate or levels of their classmates • Many students need more instruction earlier before years of failure compound the problem of not learning foundational skills on time and well— students with learning disabilities should receive intensive instruction as soon as possible • Traditional way to identify a learning disability requires students to show a significant gap between ability and academic achievement • IQ/Achievement discrepancy: the traditional criterion used for learning disabilities identification; two-year difference between potential or expected performance (based on a score on a test of intelligence [IQ] and a score from an achievement test) find more resources at find more resources at • Multi-tiered framework: an approach that provides increasingly intensive levels of support and assistance for academic learning and behavior management (IDEAregulations in 2006 encouraged the use of this) • Response to intervention (RTI): a multi-tiered framework of increasingly intensive interventions and supports to address academic difficulties; used to identify students with learning disabilities— combines assessment and instruction • Curriculum based measurement (CBM): a type of progress monitoring; evaluates learning frequently (ex weekly, monthly) by collecting data directly from academic subjects across a curriculum • Universal screening (health): testing of everyone, particularly newborns, to determine existence or risk of disability • CBM data collected during the RTI process provides teachers with helpful guidance for instruction and psychologists with information used for diagnosis • Definitions of learning disabilities reflect beliefs about possible causes and treatments • DEFINITIONS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES CHART ON PG 139 Section 2- Types of Learning Disabilities • The most common type is reading/learning disabilities • Might have average intelligence but academically be struggling • Dual discrepancy: both rate of learning and current performance are substantially below that of classmates • For many students their learning disabilities are seen in every aspect of their academic and social behaviors find more resources at find more resources at • Learning disabilities now focus particularly on academic manifestations like reading, writing, and mathematics • Learning disabilities includes groups of learners who show a wide range of strengths and abilities, approaching learning in numerous ways • Heterogeneity: Variation among members in a group • Two groups with specific problem areas- • Reading/learning disabilities: a condition in which a student’s learning disability is most significant in reading • Mathematics/learning disabilities: a condition in which a student’s learning disability is most significant in areas of mathematics — most have a reading disability but some do not Section 3- Characteristics • Learning disabilities can be described by three defining general characteristics Disability does not present physical differences immediately signal a need for help • • Once a disability is identified, very specific problems like reading fluency skills or sentence writing can be addressed by the school • Direct or explicit instruction: direct teaching of the specific skills that make up the instructional target • Keystone academic skills: the three manifestation areas— reading, writing, and mathematics— of learning disabilities • Emphasis on academics shows a shift away from discrepancy between IQ and achievement as the criterion for learning disabilities find more resources at find more resources at • Students with disabilities do not routinely get something out of traditional instructional methods • Common result of learning disabilities is overall school failure • Experts think that the source of all these difficulties starts with language development Section 4- Challenges and Their Solutions • Challenges this disability causes can affect aspects of these individuals’lives at school, at home, and in the community • Challenges caused by a disability and years of failure and frustration can become more pervasive • Motivation: need to succeed, drive not to fail • Attributions: explanations individuals give themselves for their successes or failures • Learned helplessness: usually a result of repeated failure or excessive control by others; individuals become less willing to attempt tasks or do not understand how their actions affect success • Graphic organizers: visual aids used to help students organize, understand, and remember academic content • Mnemonics: a learning strategy that promotes remembering information by associating the first letters of items in a list with a word, sentence, or picture • Learning strategies: type of instruction designed to help students study, remember important concepts, and access difficult reading material strategically find more resources at find more resources at • Progress monitoring: a form of assessment that evaluates student learning on a frequent basis to gather ongoing feedback on student learning or skill acquisition; curriculum based measurement (CBM) is a type of progress monitoring Section 5- People and Situations • The voices of individuals with disabilities tell the stories of struggles, possibilities, success, and individual differences • Popular films provide people with glimpses about the challenges these individuals face Section 6- Origins of Learning Disabilities • Professor Sam Kirk and others coined the term learning disabilities at a landmark meeting of parents and professionals in Chicago onApril 6, 1963 • During 1960s and early 1970s the idea was that learning disabilities could be solved during elementary school years if the condition were treated early enough Section 7- Prevalence • Learning disabilities remains the largest special education category, although its prevalence is decreasing substantially • Why more than other special education categories, is there great concern about the number of student identified as having learning disabiliti
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