01:512:104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Barter, Transcendentalism, Making Money

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Chapter 12 - Industry and the North
Rural Life: The Springer Family
- Example of American lifestyle, lived in Delaware
- Delaware remained a slave state until the Civil War
- Slaves could buy their freedom
- Delaware was more liberal because climate could not grow cotton
- Springer's sold wool, milk, and butter in local markets
- Planted and produced a diverse range of crops for their own use
- Neighboring farmers shared their labor
- Springer's produced goods for their own use
- Local barter system
The Family Labor System
- Most work was done at home
- Women did housework
- In New England where farm surpluses were rare, home produced items
were cheaper to obtain than ones from Britain or even Boston
- Families developed skills such as shoemaking that they could do over the
winter
- No fixed prices and money rarely changed hands - this would soon change
- Used barter system
- The "just price" was an agreement between neighbors, not by a market
- No fixed production schedule
- "Home" and "work" were the same
Urban Artisans and Workers
- In urban areas skilled craftsmen had controlled preindustrial production
since colonial times
- The apprentice system
- A boy would go work for a master
- Journeymen were former apprentices and worked for wages saving up till
they could buy their own shops
- Worked long hours
- No separation between work and leisure
- Some women worked, as seamstress, cooks, and housemaids, some
women even took over dead husbands shop
Patriarchy in Family, Work and Society
- An entire urban household was commonly organized around one kind of
work
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- Family lived in the shop
- Men were the boss, had all legal and voting rights
The Social Order
- Everyone had a fixed place in the social order
- Importance was placed on rank and status
- While many artisans were property owners, voted and participated in
politics they usually didn't challenge the domination of the rich
The Market Revolution
- The most fundamental change in American communities
- Rapid improvements in transportation, commercialization, and
industrialization
- Allowed people and goods to move fast
- Commercialization involved the replacement of household self-sufficiency
and barter with the production of goods for cash market
- Developments turned ordinary Americans into a commercial market
with abundant supplies of cheap manufactured goods
The Accumulation of Capital
- In the northern states, the business community was composed largely
of merchant in the seaboard cities
- Many had made their fortunes in the Great Shipping Boom of 1790-1897
- The Embargo Act made all foreign trade illegal - traders turn inward
- Most of the capital came from banks, some came from families,
religious groups, etc.
Most capital came from shipping, cotton - Northern capital came from slaves
The Putting-Out System
- Before the development of factories there was the "putting-out" system
- People still worked at home, but a merchant would supply (put out)
the materials and sold them at a distant market
- Before this system the entire family made an entire item - no unskilled
workers - Now workers made only a part of the finished product in large
quantities for low per-piece wagon
- In new factory system, family ties were severed
- Factory system let boss employ more labor but spend the same amount of
money
- Moved production control from the hands of the poor to the rich entrepreneur
- Shoe styles could be made to serve different markets as a result of
better infrastructure
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