01:512:104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Edmund Randolph, Continental Army, Proportional Representation

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Chapter 08 - The United States of North America
Forming a New Government
Whiskey Rebellion and Shay's Rebellion were the first signs that the
federal government needed more powers for the USA to survive
Nationalist Sentiment
Alexander Hamilton, strong coercive union having control over
economic, civil and military issues
Nationalists were from the elite
Merchants wanted to establish the credit for the United States in
Europe=can get loans
Continental Army officers who saw with the Continental Congress the
need for a strong central government.
Conservatives who wanted to restrain the radical democracy in the
states
The economic crises after the Revolutionary war gave the Nationalists
an opportunity to organize
Commercial conference in Annapolis to discuss strong federal
government
Only five states sent nationalist delegations
All states agreed that they needed more federal control over commerce
The Constitutional Convention
In Philadelphia
Everyone but Rhode Island attended
Agreed to vote by states
Madison wanted:
Wanted to scrap the articles of Confederation in favor of a "consolidated
government" having the power to tax and enforce its laws directly rather
than through the states
Representation in the bicameral national legislature would be based on
population
House of Representatives would be elected by popular vote but
senators would be chosen by state legislators to insulate them from
democratic pressure.
A national judiciary would have the power to veto both national and
state legislation
William Peterson of New Jersey opposed= the New Jersey plan
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Thought that Madison's plan would allow small states to be swallowed
up by big ones
Wanted only a single house congress that equally represented the
states
The Great Compromise was the result of the two sides
Proportional representation by population in the house vs.
representation by states in the Senate
Small states would have never joined without the senate
3/5th's rule- 5 slaves= 3 whites
Reason why South joined
Slaves only counted in representation not taxes!
Georgia and Louisiana demanded and got protection for the
international slave trade
South also legitimized capturing escaped slaves in the north.
Madison wanted a strong judiciary that could declare acts of Congress
unconstitutional
Edmund Randolph opposed a strong executive- thought that it was the
beginning of a monarchy
Wanted executive to be elected so that it was independent of congress,
but thought the people weren't educated enough to choose-electoral
college
Ratifying the New Constitution
Needed nine states approval
Supporters of the constitution adopted the name Federalists
Opposition wasn't unified
Opposition were localists=many different interests
Opposition thought the constitution gave the "national government" to
much power
Thought that the state government would represent the people better
Political thinkers thought that a republican government could only exist
in small countries as a big country had to many factions
Madison thought that a big country had more factions= no one group
could have all the power
Federalists were urban vs. farming opposition
Shaping of the Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the constitution
The First Amendment prohibits Congress from establishing an official
religion
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