01:512:104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Cotton Gin, Midnight Judges Act, 600 Miles

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Chapter 09 - An Agrarian Republic
The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
In 1800 most people lived on the East Coast, however in 50 years
Americans would reach the Pacific
Roads were bad= slow travel
Russian American: Sitka
Russians destroy Aleutian society
Intermarriage-like HBC and FNP
Established Sitka as center of operations
Went as far south as California
Northern New Spain
Spain wanted the Pacific North but failed, Russians, Americans and
British were in the area
Spain constructed missions in California to establish its presence
Claimed the Columbia River
The French Legacy, New Orleans and St. Louis
New Orleans was the key to Louisiana
Under French civil law blacks got equal legal status as whites
Most of the trade was American
American's were allowed into New Orleans as a result of Pinckney's
Treaty but Americans were uncomfortable that a foreign power could
control the trade
St. Louis was a small trading post 600 miles north
Trans-Appalachia: Cincinnati
West of the Appalachian Mountains experienced the greatest growth
Kentucky and Tennessee were the first Trans-Appalachian states
Many families migrated every year, moving farther west
Once FNP were defeated Cincinnati boomed
Atlantic Ports: From Charleston to Boston
Atlantic Ports dominated the country economically
Charleston was the center for cotton, rice indigo
Baltimore was the major port for tobacco
Philadelphia was the cultural, intellectual capital
New York was the only city to accept the British auction system
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Offered goods in large lots at wholesale prices=no middleman
Most British trade passed through New York
Boston was the shipbuilding center
A National Economy
USA was a producer of raw materials
At the mercy for of world prices
The Economy of the Young Republic
94% of Americans lived in rural communities=agricultural economy
Mostly self-sufficient farmers in the West
North some commercial farming
South was wholly commercial
However prices for slaves went up while demand for tobacco, rice and
indigo were steady
Cotton was in demand but it was inefficient needing lots of labor
This changed with the cotton gin
Britain was the USA largest trading partner but as an independent
nation did not benefit from British mercantilist policy.
Both Britain and France taxed American vessels discriminatorily
Shipping and Economic Boom
French Revolution-European ships are converted into fighting
ships=American boom
Neutrality led to re-exporting goods
Rapid growth in port cities=rapid growth in farms
Europeans were to busy to trade= Americans move into China and
create a Pacific Trade Triangle
Rich trade led to creation of banks, insurance and other industries
The Jefferson Presidency
Jefferson renounced the "rags of royalty"- no speech to congress,
walked to his inauguration
Led to the change of power from one party to the another peacefully
Republican Agrarianism
Factory system horrified Jefferson= opposed industrialization vs.
Hamilton who encouraged it
Thought that the factory system would create the same extremes in
wealth in American that was seen in Europe
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Jefferson wanted small family farms- an agrarian public
Malthusian growth theory according to Jefferson was only applicable in
Europe as the USA had plenty of room to grow
Jefferson's vision depended on constant expansion
Jefferson's Government
Proposed simplicity over Federalist complexity
Cut navy and army and government staff
Proposed that the federal government only stop men from injuring one
another and stay out of their lives
Washington DC was uncompleted during Jefferson's years
An Independent Judiciary
Jefferson did not purge Federalist officials= led moderates to switch
over
Did however purge the "midnight judges" as the new congress was
Democratic Republican= got rid of the job
Adams before leaving appointed 16 new judgeships and six new circuit
courts.
Democratic Republicans thought this was a ploy to extend Federal
control over the people
One justice Marbury sued Jefferson's Secretary of State, James
Madison over his lost position
The question was: Could the Judiciary be independent?
The ruling stated that the judiciary had the right to stay independent but
the executive could not appoint someone to a position that did not exist
The Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon regained Louisiana from Spain and had the option of fighting
the British in North America
Upon hearing the news the Spanish commander closed New Orleans
to Americans= trade disrupted
Federalists demanded military action
Jefferson bought Louisiana Territory for $15 Million
The constitution did not site that the president could buy territory and
Jefferson was a strong supporter in that the president could only act to
powers specifically given to him. However Louisiana was to rich to give
up and thus he argued that the new land was needed for his agrarian
republic
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