01:512:104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Dwight L. Moody, Jane Addams, Hull House

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Chapter 25 - America Moves to the City 1865-1900
The Urban Frontier
Cities grew massively in and out-->skycraper and transit lines; different districts for business, industry,
and residential neighborhoods-->segregation by race, ethnicity, and social class
Industrial jobs drew people off their farms and into factory centers; Other Attractions=glitter of city lights,
electricity, indoor plumbing, telephones, engineering marvels(skyscraper, Brooklyn Bridge)
Department stores attracted urban middle-class shoppers and provided urban working-class jobs, many
for women, heralded consumerism and widened class divisions
Move to the city introduced Americans to new ways of living
Crimnals flourished, sanitary facilities could not keep up with explosion of population, impure water,
uncollected garbage, unwashed bodies, droppings from draft animals caused nasty stench
Cities monuments of contradictions-->full of constrasting styles
Slums worst of all-->really crowded, filthy, rat-infested(esp after perfection of "dumbell" tenement), several
families sardined together
Southern Europe Uprooted
The population of Europe nearly doubled in the century after 1800 due to abundant supplies of fish and
grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe.
Many Europeans left Europe because the population was vastly increasing and there was
basically no room left.
They did this because American was seen as a land of great opportunity.
This was beneficial to profit-seeking Americans because they wanted low-wage labor,
passengers in the steamboats, and states wanted more population.
Europeans also seeked religious freedom.
Reactions to the New Immigration
Trading jobs and services for votes, a powerful boss might claim the loyalty of thousands of followers.
One woman who was deeply dedicated to uplifting the urban masses was Jane Addams, who was one of
the first generation of college-educated women. She established Hull House, the most prominent
American settlement.
The women of Hull House successfully lobbied in 1893 for an Illinois antisweatshop law that protected
women workers and prohibited child labor.
Narrowing the Welcome Mat
The new immigrants have came for mostly the same reasons as the old, to seek new opportunity, escape
poverty and squalor of Europe. Nativists viewed these new waves of europian immagrants as a horde
and often gave them a rude reception. The new wave came as a surprise as the birthrate increased and
many became upset.
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Native Americans voiced additional fears. they blamed the immigrants for the degradation of urban
government. trade unionists assailed the alien arrivals for their willingness to work for starvation. wages
that seemed to them like princely sums and for importing their intellectual baggage such dangerious
doctrines as socialism. communism and anarchism.
Many business leaders, who had welcomed the flood of cheat manual labor began to fear that they had
embraed a frankeinstiens monster.
Many unions were created and many argued that if business recieved rights, so should its workers
because after all, they are people. people protected by the constitution.
Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Protestant churches suffered significantly from the population move to the cities, where many of their traditional
doctrines and pastoral approaches seemed irrelevant.
Many churches suffered heavily from the switch to cities, where their preachings seemed
Larger houses of worship became mere forms of entertainment with their stained glass
windows and pipe organs.
A new generation of urban revivalists stepped into this spreading moral vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a
Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness. He contributed to adapting the old-time
religion to the facts of city life. The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in 1889 to carry out his work.
Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths were gaining enormous strength from the New Immigration.
By 1890, there were over 150 religious denominations in the United States. (YMCA-Young Men’s Christian
Associations and YWCA- Young Women’s Christian Association)
The, Church of Christ Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true practice of
Christianity heals sickness.
Darwin Disrupts the Churches
Charles Darwins theory on evolution created many rifts in the church. Old clergymen being thrown out of
office and biology teachers being fired for teaching evolution.
The Lust for Learning
public education continued its upward climb. the ideal of tax-supported elementary schools, adopted on a
nationwide basis before the civil war, was still gathering strength. Americans were accepting the truism
that a free government cannot function sucessfully if the people are shackled by ignorance.
1870, more and more states were making at least a grade school education compulsory and this gain
helped check the frightful abuses of child labor.
1880's and 1890's the spread of high schools developed. before the civil war, it was common to have
private schools and tax supported schools were rare. now a grade school education was the birthright of
every citizen.
Free textbooks being provided by taxpayers, teacher-training schools expanded, kindergartens gained
support, New Immigration brought vast new strength to private Catholic parochial schools
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