01:512:381 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Second Industrial Revolution, Durable Good, Social History

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Women and Reform, II
Immigrant Working-Class Women, 1890s-1920
The Second Industrial Revolution
New Industrialization:
Second wave of industrialization makes the US essentially modern: economy proceeds
from oil and steel and RR to consumer durable goods
US market is national and international and the fastest growing in the World
By WW1 it will be the largest industrial economy in the World
More and New Jobs for Women
This means new jobs, and many new ones for women
They enter the labor force in more numbers than ever before, across the board
from the poorest to the middle class, and from African American to immigrant to
white. There are new opportunities for them in these new industries
Women are 20-27 percent of workforce between 1900 and 1920:
About are in clerical
¼ in industrial
in domestic
in agriculture
Rapid and Massive Urbanization
Urban centers grow at light speed and many become huge to accommodate new huge
factories and trade centers (NYC or Chicago for example)
Many women who move to cities are employed in the industry and services that cluster
in cities, particularly consumer industries and sales
Immigration as fuel for both industrialization and urbanization
There are not enough native-born workers, and so we see the largest wave of
immigration thus far in US history between the 1880s and the 1910. Literally millions of
people come in
Note location from which they come, old versus new immigrant issues: poverty, rural
background, religion, language, “race”
Post 1890: from Austro-Hungarian empire, Italy, Russia; Southern and Eastern
Europe; language and religion often different from most native born - Catholics
and Jews; poorer - not landholding farmers but peasants or the urban poor; they
come for more open opportunities for wage work in cities, often with intention to
go home (single men in higher numbers rather than families of old immigration;
religious tolerance
Big Question
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