01:119:115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Histone H1, Nuclear Lamina, Nucleosome

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In a mitotic chromosome, the looped domains coil and fold to produce the characteristic metaphase chromosome: these packing steps are highly specific and precise, with particular genes located in the same places on metaphase chromosomes. Interphase chromosomes have highly condensed areas, heterochromatin, and less compacted areas, euchromatin: heterochromatin dna is largely inaccessible to transcription enzymes, looser packing of euchromatin makes its dna accessible to enzymes and available for transcription. Concept 19. 2 gene expression can be regulated at any stage, but the key step is transcription. Chromatin modifications affect the availability of genes for transcription. Transcription initiation is controlled by proteins that interact with dna and with each other: chromatin-modifying enzymes provide initial control of gene expression by making a region of. In eukaryotes, high levels of transcription of particular genes depend on the interaction of control elements with specific transcription factors.

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