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Lecture 5

01:119:115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Nuclear Membrane, Nuclear Pore, Cellular Respiration

3 Pages
59 Views
Fall 2018

Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:115
Professor
Cardinale
Lecture
5

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Lecture 5
9/18/18
I. Diversity and Characteristics of the Cell
A. Structure and Morphology
1. Prokaryotes - fig 6.5
a) “Before nucleus”
b) Domains: bacteria and archaea - don’t have true nuclei
c) ~4 billion years ago
d) 1-10μm
2. Eukaryotes - fig 6.8
a) “True nucleus”
b) Domain eukarya
c) 1.8bya
d) 10-100μm
B. Common Features
1. Surrounded by plasma membrane
2. Distinct internal environment
3. Store, replicate genetic ino
4. divide/reproduce
5. Metabolism
6. Interact with/respond to external environment
7. (Generally) limited in size
C. Cell size
1. Most cells are very small (Fig 6.2)
2. Limits to cell size
a) Plasma membrane
(1) All material must pass to enter cell
(2) Surface area (sa) limits rate
b) Advantageous to maximize surface area to volume ratio
II. Components of Eukaryotic Cells
A. Nucleus : contains most of the DNA in the cell, often highly visible under a
microscope
1. Nuclear Envelope : double membrane, separates nucleoplasm from
cytoplasm
a) Membranes fused - nuclear pores: protein complexes, regulate
passage between cytoplasm and nucleus
2. Nucleolus : region of ribosome production within nucleus. Dense in RNA
and proteins.
B. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
1. Organelles acquired via endosymbiosis - fig 25.10
2. Mitochondria
a) Aerobic respiration

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Description
Lecture 5 91818 I. Diversity and Characteristics of the Cell A. Structure and Morphology 1. Prokaryotes - fig 6.5 a) Before nucleus b) Domains: bacteria and archaea - dont have true nuclei c) ~4 billion years ago d) 1-10m 2. Eukaryotes - fig 6.8 a) True nucleus b) Domain eukarya c) 1.8bya d) 10-100m B. Common Features 1. Surrounded by plasma membrane 2. Distinct internal environment 3. Store, replicate genetic ino 4. dividereproduce 5. Metabolism 6. Interact withrespond to external environment 7. (Generally) limited in size C. Cell size 1. Most cells are very small (Fig 6.2) 2. Limits to cell size a) Plasma membrane (1) All material must pass to enter cell (2) Surface area (sa) limits rate b) Advantageous to maximize surface area to volume ratio II. Components of Eukaryotic Cells A. Nucleus: contains most of the DNA in the cell, often highly visible under a microscope 1. Nuclear Envelope: double membrane, separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm a) Membranes fused - nuclear pores: protein complexes, regulate passage between cytoplasm and nucleus 2. Nucleolus: region of ribosome production within nucleus. Dense in RNA and proteins. B. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 1. Organelles acquired via endosymbiosis - fig 25.10 2. Mitochondria a) Aerobic respiration
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