1619: lucilio vanini, darwinian evolution: accumulated inherited changes in a population over time, he didn"t come up with it, he came up with the mechanism of natural selection, not evolution itself. Natural selection is what projected it to what it is today: darwin, malthus, lyell: principles of geology, suggested that the earth was not 4,000 years old, but beyond what we can imagine in age. It just evolved: lamarck: came up with first theory of evolution. : organisms produce more offspring that can survive to: overproduction, limits on population growth reproduce are limited so there is a struggle for existence . The raw material for evolution: differential reproductive success, variation. : individuals within species vary (some are more fit" than others). Idea to explain biodiversity: creation: was the only idea for several millennium. ** reproduction is the key to natural selectionl the most fit individuals produce the most offspring natural selection acts on variation.