01:119:115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Microtubule, Spindle Apparatus, Kinetochore

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Introduction to heredity: heredity, variation - how natural selection works, genetics, gametes, sexual vs. asexual reproduction, asexual reproduction. Disadvantages - always the same, mutations take a toll v: sexual reproduction. Disadvantages - difficult to find partner: description chromosomes in humans, human somatic cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 46, karyotype - ordered display of chromosomes (photographed in metaphase, homologous chromosomes - pair of x i. ii. Carry genes controlling same inherited characters: same gene at equivalent locus (plural: loci, chromosomes (humans) i. Somatic cells - diploid (2n), 46 chromosomes: 1 pair of sex chromosomes, females - xx, males - xy, 22 pairs of autosomes (body chromosomes) ii. Gametes - haploid cells (n), 23 chromosomes: 1 sex chromosome, unfertilized egg (ovum) - x, sperm cell - x or y iii. Replicated chromosome = 2 identical sister chromatids: comparing the sexual life cycles of different organisms, life cycle i. ii. From conception to production of own offspring: fertilization and meiosis.

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