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Lecture 16

01:119:116 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Cellular Respiration, Glycoprotein, Signal Transduction


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:116
Professor
Beal
Lecture
16

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Now$that$you$know$all$the$steps$can$you$start$with$the$testes$and$the$ovary$and$go$all$the$
way$through$fertilization$and$cleavage
1.
List$the$steps$in$fertilization$and$what$occurs$at$each$step.$What$happens$if$the$steps$are$
interrupted?$(IOV)$Now$look$at$it$the$other$way,$what$symptoms$would$you$see$at$each$
stage$if$it$was$not$proceeding$normally?
2.
Flow$Chart$the$acrosome$rxn$and$the$cortical$rxn
3.
CC$fertilization$and$cleavage$in$echinoderm,$frog,$chicken,$and$a$human.$
4.
Outcomes
Development=$all$changes$that$occur$over$a$lifetime
A.
Model$organisms,$sea$urchins,$frog,$chick,$nematode
B.
Many$points$during$lifetime
C.
I.
Zygote-fertilized$egg,$single$cell
Ovum-larger$immotile
Sperm-usually$flagellated
1.
Restores$diploid$number
i.
Determines$sex$(sometimes)
ii.
Activates$egg,$reactions$to$start$development
iii.
What$are$consequences$of$Fert?
2.
Plasma$membrane
-
Outer$coverings
-
What$does$the$egg$need$to$screen$the$sperm$for?
Gametic$isolation-key$in$external$fert
Polyspermy
Why?
-
The$egg$has$
3.
Sperm$dissolves$outer$layer
-
Molecs$on$sperm$surface$bind$to$egg
-
Egg$surface$changes-deters$polyspermy
-
3$steps$in$fert
4.
Intro
A.
Plasma$membrane
-
Vitelline$layer$
-
jelly$coat
-
Egg$coverings1.
External$fertilization-jelly$coat$chemicals$attract$sperm$(chemotaxis)
-
What$is$the$acrosome?$What$is$funct.?
-
Acrosomal$reaction
-
Sperm$contacts$jelly$coat
-
Actin$filaments$penetrate$jelly$coat
-
Protein$Molecs$at$tip$bind$to$specific$receptors
-
No$more$sperm
-
What$happens$if$another$enters?
-
Sperm$enters$egg-Plasmogamy
-
Slow$block$to$polyspermy-cortical$reaction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Fert$envelope-
-
Cortical$reaction-vitelline$layer$lifts$and$hardens
-
Enzymes$clip$off$and$release$other$sperm-this$is$permanent$
-
Fast$block$to$polyspermy-triggered$by$membrane$fusion
-
Unfertilized$egg$cytoplasm$negatively$charged$relative$to$outside
-
At$fert-->$ion$channels$in$egg$plasma$membrane$open
-
Na+$diffuses$and$enters$egg
-
Egg$depolarizes-1$to$3$seconds,$lasts$about$1$minute
-
Ca+$is$released$from$ER$(smooth$or$rough?)
-
Cortical$granules$triggered
-
Sperm$binds$to$egg-->$signal$transduction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Sea$urchinB.
Plasma$membrane1.
Zona$pellucida2.
Follicle$cells3.
MammalsC.
Internal$fertilization
-
Sperm$bind$to$ZP3$(a$specific$glycoprotein)$in$zona$pellucida
Binding$triggers$acrosome$to$release$ enzymes
Acrosomal$reaction$in$mammals
-
No$fast$block,$no$Fertilization$envelope$forms
-
Ca^2+$releases$into$cytoplasm
Cortical$granules$release$enzymes$to$outside$of$cell
Enzyme$catalyze$changes$In$Zona$pellucida
Sperm$binding$triggers$cortical$reaction$(as$in$sea$urchins)
-
Onset$of$embryonic$development1.
Triggered$by$the$Ca2+$cortical$reaction2.
Rise$in$cellular$ respirationA.
Maternal$enzymes$and$proteins$activatedB.
Increased$protein$synthesis-uses$maternal$mRNA$already$in$cellC.
Changes3.
Activation$of$the$eggD.
In$sea$urchins-eggs$have$already$completed$meiosis
-
In$humans-secondary$oocyte-quick$review
-
Egg$development1.
Sperm$nucleus$guided$to$egg$nucleus$by$microtubules2.
Karyogamy-several$hours$in$humans,$20$min$in$sea$urchins3.
Zygote-diploid$and$totipotent4.
At$the$same$time-fusion$of$nucleiE.
When$first$cleavage$occurs
-
Sea$urchins-90$minutes
-
Mammals-12-26$hours$after$sperm$binds$to$egg
-
Fert$endsF.
Fertilization
II.
Second$step$in$embryonic$development
-
Single$cell$becomes$and$embryo
-
IntroA.
Rapid$mitosis
-
Very$shirt/no$G1$or$G1$(gap)$phases
-
No$growth$or$protein$synthesis
-
Cleavage$furrow
-
Presence$of$yolk$effects$pattern$of$divisions
-
StagesB.
Zygote
-
Embryo-1st$cell$division$takes$24$hours
-
Blastula-128$blastomeres-hollow$ball
-
Blastopore$becomes$anus
-
Sea$urchins1.
Division$pattern$is$uniform$across$the$embryo
-
Cleavage$is$asymmetric-yolk
-
Vegetal$pole-yolk
-
Animal$pole-other$side
-
Holoblastic$cleavage-yolk$slows$down$cytokinesis$but$furrow$passes$through$
the$egg
-
First$2$cleavage$events$form$parallel$to$meridian
-
1st$cleavage$furrow$is$still$dividing$yolk$cytoplasm$when$2nd$cell$div$begins
-
Eventually$4$of$equal$size$extend$from$animal$pole$to$vegetal$pole
-
Gray$crescent-opposite$of$sperm$entry
-
Now$gastrulation$will$begin
-
Frogs2.
Pattern$of$cleavage$differs$among$speciesC.
Little$yolk1.
Holoblastic2.
Blastocoel$forms$centrally3.
Blastomeres$often$of$similar$size4.
In$echinoderms,$mammals$and$annelids
-
Substantial$yolk1.
Cleavage$furrow$cannot$pass$through$yolk2.
Meroblastic-cleavage$only$where$no$yolk3.
In$birds,$other$reptiles,$many$fishes,$and$insects
-
Cell$cycle$returns
-
Rate$of$mitosis$slows
-
Following$cleavage$
Cell$and$tissues
-
Animal$body
-
Morphogenesis
Gastrulation1.
Organogenesis2.
Occurs$during
Summary$of$development
-
CleavageIII.
Plasma$membrane
Zona$pellucida
Follicle$cells
Development*1
Friday,$March$11,$2016
12:01$PM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Now$that$you$know$all$the$steps$can$you$start$with$the$testes$and$the$ovary$and$go$all$the$
way$through$fertilization$and$cleavage
1.
List$the$steps$in$fertilization$and$what$occurs$at$each$step.$What$happens$if$the$steps$are$
interrupted?$(IOV)$Now$look$at$it$the$other$way,$what$symptoms$would$you$see$at$each$
stage$if$it$was$not$proceeding$normally?
2.
Flow$Chart$the$acrosome$rxn$and$the$cortical$rxn3.
CC$fertilization$and$cleavage$in$echinoderm,$frog,$chicken,$and$a$human.$4.
Outcomes
Development=$all$changes$that$occur$over$a$lifetimeA.
Model$organisms,$sea$urchins,$frog,$chick,$nematodeB.
Many$points$during$lifetimeC.
DevelopmentI.
Zygote-fertilized$egg,$single$cell
Ovum-larger$immotile
Sperm-usually$flagellated1.
Restores$diploid$numberi.
Determines$sex$(sometimes)ii.
Activates$egg,$reactions$to$start$developmentiii.
What$are$consequences$of$Fert?2.
Plasma$membrane
-
Outer$coverings
-
What$does$the$egg$need$to$screen$the$sperm$for?
Gametic$isolation-key$in$external$fert
Polyspermy
Why?
-
The$egg$has$3.
Sperm$dissolves$outer$layer
-
Molecs$on$sperm$surface$bind$to$egg
-
Egg$surface$changes-deters$polyspermy
-
3$steps$in$fert4.
IntroA.
Plasma$membrane
-
Vitelline$layer$
-
jelly$coat
-
Egg$coverings1.
External$fertilization-jelly$coat$chemicals$attract$sperm$(chemotaxis)
-
What$is$the$acrosome?$What$is$funct.?
-
Acrosomal$reaction
-
Sperm$contacts$jelly$coat
-
Actin$filaments$penetrate$jelly$coat
-
Protein$Molecs$at$tip$bind$to$specific$receptors
-
No$more$sperm
-
What$happens$if$another$enters?
-
Sperm$enters$egg-Plasmogamy
-
Slow$block$to$polyspermy-cortical$reaction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Fert$envelope-
-
Cortical$reaction-vitelline$layer$lifts$and$hardens
-
Enzymes$clip$off$and$release$other$sperm-this$is$permanent$
-
Fast$block$to$polyspermy-triggered$by$membrane$fusion
-
Unfertilized$egg$cytoplasm$negatively$charged$relative$to$outside
-
At$fert-->$ion$channels$in$egg$plasma$membrane$open
-
Na+$diffuses$and$enters$egg
-
Egg$depolarizes-1$to$3$seconds,$lasts$about$1$minute
-
Ca+$is$released$from$ER$(smooth$or$rough?)
-
Cortical$granules$triggered
-
Sperm$binds$to$egg-->$signal$transduction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Sea$urchinB.
Plasma$membrane1.
Zona$pellucida2.
Follicle$cells3.
MammalsC.
Internal$fertilization
-
Sperm$bind$to$ZP3$(a$specific$glycoprotein)$in$zona$pellucida
Binding$triggers$acrosome$to$release$ enzymes
Acrosomal$reaction$in$mammals
-
No$fast$block,$no$Fertilization$envelope$forms
-
Ca^2+$releases$into$cytoplasm
Cortical$granules$release$enzymes$to$outside$of$cell
Enzyme$catalyze$changes$In$Zona$pellucida
Sperm$binding$triggers$cortical$reaction$(as$in$sea$urchins)
-
Onset$of$embryonic$development1.
Triggered$by$the$Ca2+$cortical$reaction2.
Rise$in$cellular$ respirationA.
Maternal$enzymes$and$proteins$activatedB.
Increased$protein$synthesis-uses$maternal$mRNA$already$in$cellC.
Changes3.
Activation$of$the$eggD.
In$sea$urchins-eggs$have$already$completed$meiosis
-
In$humans-secondary$oocyte-quick$review
-
Egg$development1.
Sperm$nucleus$guided$to$egg$nucleus$by$microtubules2.
Karyogamy-several$hours$in$humans,$20$min$in$sea$urchins3.
Zygote-diploid$and$totipotent4.
At$the$same$time-fusion$of$nucleiE.
When$first$cleavage$occurs
-
Sea$urchins-90$minutes
-
Mammals-12-26$hours$after$sperm$binds$to$egg
-
Fert$endsF.
FertilizationII.
Second$step$in$embryonic$development
-
Single$cell$becomes$and$embryo
-
IntroA.
Rapid$mitosis
-
Very$shirt/no$G1$or$G1$(gap)$phases
-
No$growth$or$protein$synthesis
-
Cleavage$furrow
-
Presence$of$yolk$effects$pattern$of$divisions
-
StagesB.
Zygote
-
Embryo-1st$cell$division$takes$24$hours
-
Blastula-128$blastomeres-hollow$ball
-
Blastopore$becomes$anus
-
Sea$urchins1.
Division$pattern$is$uniform$across$the$embryo
-
Cleavage$is$asymmetric-yolk
-
Vegetal$pole-yolk
-
Animal$pole-other$side
-
Holoblastic$cleavage-yolk$slows$down$cytokinesis$but$furrow$passes$through$
the$egg
-
First$2$cleavage$events$form$parallel$to$meridian
-
1st$cleavage$furrow$is$still$dividing$yolk$cytoplasm$when$2nd$cell$div$begins
-
Eventually$4$of$equal$size$extend$from$animal$pole$to$vegetal$pole
-
Gray$crescent-opposite$of$sperm$entry
-
Now$gastrulation$will$begin
-
Frogs2.
Pattern$of$cleavage$differs$among$speciesC.
Little$yolk1.
Holoblastic2.
Blastocoel$forms$centrally3.
Blastomeres$often$of$similar$size4.
In$echinoderms,$mammals$and$annelids
-
Substantial$yolk1.
Cleavage$furrow$cannot$pass$through$yolk2.
Meroblastic-cleavage$only$where$no$yolk3.
In$birds,$other$reptiles,$many$fishes,$and$insects
-
Cell$cycle$returns
-
Rate$of$mitosis$slows
-
Following$cleavage$
Cell$and$tissues
-
Animal$body
-
Morphogenesis
Gastrulation1.
Organogenesis2.
Occurs$during
Summary$of$development
-
CleavageIII.
Plasma$membrane
Zona$pellucida
Follicle$cells
Development*1
Friday,$March$11,$2016 12:01$PM
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Now$that$you$know$all$the$steps$can$you$start$with$the$testes$and$the$ovary$and$go$all$the$
way$through$fertilization$and$cleavage
1.
List$the$steps$in$fertilization$and$what$occurs$at$each$step.$What$happens$if$the$steps$are$
interrupted?$(IOV)$Now$look$at$it$the$other$way,$what$symptoms$would$you$see$at$each$
stage$if$it$was$not$proceeding$normally?
2.
Flow$Chart$the$acrosome$rxn$and$the$cortical$rxn3.
CC$fertilization$and$cleavage$in$echinoderm,$frog,$chicken,$and$a$human.$4.
Outcomes
Development=$all$changes$that$occur$over$a$lifetimeA.
Model$organisms,$sea$urchins,$frog,$chick,$nematodeB.
Many$points$during$lifetimeC.
DevelopmentI.
Zygote-fertilized$egg,$single$cell
Ovum-larger$immotile
Sperm-usually$flagellated1.
Restores$diploid$numberi.
Determines$sex$(sometimes)ii.
Activates$egg,$reactions$to$start$developmentiii.
What$are$consequences$of$Fert?2.
Plasma$membrane
-
Outer$coverings
-
What$does$the$egg$need$to$screen$the$sperm$for?
Gametic$isolation-key$in$external$fert
Polyspermy
Why?
-
The$egg$has$3.
Sperm$dissolves$outer$layer
-
Molecs$on$sperm$surface$bind$to$egg
-
Egg$surface$changes-deters$polyspermy
-
3$steps$in$fert4.
IntroA.
Plasma$membrane
-
Vitelline$layer$
-
jelly$coat
-
1.
External$fertilization-jelly$coat$chemicals$attract$sperm$(chemotaxis)
-
What$is$the$acrosome?$What$is$funct.?
-
Acrosomal$reaction
-
Sperm$contacts$jelly$coat
-
Actin$filaments$penetrate$jelly$coat
-
Protein$Molecs$at$tip$bind$to$specific$receptors
-
No$more$sperm
-
What$happens$if$another$enters?
-
Sperm$enters$egg-Plasmogamy
-
Slow$block$to$polyspermy-cortical$reaction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Fert$envelope-
-
Cortical$reaction-vitelline$layer$lifts$and$hardens
-
Enzymes$clip$off$and$release$other$sperm-this$is$permanent$
-
Fast$block$to$polyspermy-triggered$by$membrane$fusion
-
Unfertilized$egg$cytoplasm$negatively$charged$relative$to$outside
-
At$fert-->$ion$channels$in$egg$plasma$membrane$open
-
Na+$diffuses$and$enters$egg
-
Egg$depolarizes-1$to$3$seconds,$lasts$about$1$minute
-
Ca+$is$released$from$ER$(smooth$or$rough?)
-
Cortical$granules$triggered
-
Sperm$binds$to$egg-->$signal$transduction
-
Cortical$granules=$vesicles$in$cortex$that$release$ enzymes
-
Sea$urchin
B.
Plasma$membrane
1.
Zona$pellucida
2.
Follicle$cells
3.
Mammals
C.
Internal$fertilization
-
Sperm$bind$to$ZP3$(a$specific$glycoprotein)$in$zona$pellucida
Binding$triggers$acrosome$to$release$ enzymes
Acrosomal$reaction$in$mammals
-
No$fast$block,$no$Fertilization$envelope$forms
-
Ca^2+$releases$into$cytoplasm
Cortical$granules$release$enzymes$to$outside$of$cell
Enzyme$catalyze$changes$In$Zona$pellucida
Sperm$binding$triggers$cortical$reaction$(as$in$sea$urchins)
-
Onset$of$embryonic$development1.
Triggered$by$the$Ca2+$cortical$reaction2.
Rise$in$cellular$ respirationA.
Maternal$enzymes$and$proteins$activatedB.
Increased$protein$synthesis-uses$maternal$mRNA$already$in$cellC.
Changes3.
Activation$of$the$eggD.
In$sea$urchins-eggs$have$already$completed$meiosis
-
In$humans-secondary$oocyte-quick$review
-
Egg$development1.
Sperm$nucleus$guided$to$egg$nucleus$by$microtubules2.
Karyogamy-several$hours$in$humans,$20$min$in$sea$urchins3.
Zygote-diploid$and$totipotent4.
At$the$same$time-fusion$of$nucleiE.
When$first$cleavage$occurs
-
Sea$urchins-90$minutes
-
Mammals-12-26$hours$after$sperm$binds$to$egg
-
Fert$endsF.
FertilizationII.
Second$step$in$embryonic$development
-
Single$cell$becomes$and$embryo
-
IntroA.
Rapid$mitosis
-
Very$shirt/no$G1$or$G1$(gap)$phases
-
No$growth$or$protein$synthesis
-
Cleavage$furrow
-
Presence$of$yolk$effects$pattern$of$divisions
-
StagesB.
Zygote
-
Embryo-1st$cell$division$takes$24$hours
-
Blastula-128$blastomeres-hollow$ball
-
Blastopore$becomes$anus
-
Sea$urchins1.
Division$pattern$is$uniform$across$the$embryo
-
Cleavage$is$asymmetric-yolk
-
Vegetal$pole-yolk
-
Animal$pole-other$side
-
Holoblastic$cleavage-yolk$slows$down$cytokinesis$but$furrow$passes$through$
the$egg
-
First$2$cleavage$events$form$parallel$to$meridian
-
1st$cleavage$furrow$is$still$dividing$yolk$cytoplasm$when$2nd$cell$div$begins
-
Eventually$4$of$equal$size$extend$from$animal$pole$to$vegetal$pole
-
Gray$crescent-opposite$of$sperm$entry
-
Now$gastrulation$will$begin
-
Frogs2.
Pattern$of$cleavage$differs$among$speciesC.
Little$yolk1.
Holoblastic2.
Blastocoel$forms$centrally3.
Blastomeres$often$of$similar$size4.
In$echinoderms,$mammals$and$annelids
-
Substantial$yolk1.
Cleavage$furrow$cannot$pass$through$yolk2.
Meroblastic-cleavage$only$where$no$yolk3.
In$birds,$other$reptiles,$many$fishes,$and$insects
-
Cell$cycle$returns
-
Rate$of$mitosis$slows
-
Following$cleavage$
Cell$and$tissues
-
Animal$body
-
Morphogenesis
Gastrulation1.
Organogenesis2.
Occurs$during
Summary$of$development
-
CleavageIII.
Plasma$membrane
Zona$pellucida
Follicle$cells
Development*1
Friday,$March$11,$2016 12:01$PM
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