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Bio Lecture 1 - Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry

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Rutgers University
Biological Sciences

9/3/13 Introduction to General Biology 115, Fall 2013 Dr. Carolyn d’Arville, PhD. MS. Fed. d’[email protected] LECTURE 1 Exam dates: Sunday October 6 , 3-4:20 pm th Sunday November 10 , 3-4:20 pm Saturday December 21, 1-4 pm Exam testing: Lower Level Questions Level 1 Level 2 Level 1: Recall or know a single fact i.e. name, label, match, identify, define Level 2: Recall or know several facts i.e. name/identify multiple item, label diagram Upper Level Questions Level 3 Level 4 Level 3: Integrated understanding of a system i.e. compare/contrast, categorize, comprehend system Level 4: Extend understanding to novel situations or integrate systems i.e. hypothesize, assess novel situation, select/justify diagnosis or treatment Biology – The scientific study of life. - How does a single cell develop into an organism? - How does the human mind work? - How does living things interact in communities? - Concept 1.1 Theme 1: Study of life can be divided into different levels of biological organization. New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy. 9/3/13 Emergent Properties and Reductionism Emergent properties result from arrangement and interaction of parts within a system. i.e. Functioning bicycle emerges only when all necessary parts connect in a correct way. Reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. i.e. Study molecular structure of DNA helps us understand chemical basis of inheritance. Understanding Biology Balances Reduction with Emergence Systems bioconstructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems and ask: - How does a drug for blood pressure affect other organs? - How does increasing Co alt2r the biosphere? Theme 2: Organisms interact with other organisms and the physical environment. No organism lives in complete isolation. - Every organism interacts with its environment (abiotic) and organisms (biotic). Theme 3: Life requires energy transfers and transformation. Energy flows through ecosystem in as light, out as heat. - Living organisms transform energy from one form to another. Theme 4: Form vs. Function - i.e. Leaves are thin and flat, max capture of light by chloroplasts. - i.e. Bird’s wing adapted to flight. * Why things are the way they are?! * Theme 5: Cells are the lowest level of organization that preform all required for life. Eukaryotic vs. Pr
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