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Ch. 40

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Biological Sciences

Ch. 40 Protection, Support, and Movement 3/1/12 Epithelial Tissue · Cells that make up various linings in the body. In humans, includes outer layer of skin, inside of mouth, stomach, uterus etc and tissue surrounding body’s organs (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura) · Outer epithelium can secrete: o Cuticle for protection o Lubricants, adhesives o Odorous, poisonous substances Epidermis and Dermis (Fig 40-1) Epithelium Protects body from outer environment Stratum corneum Keratinocytes: mechanical strength, reduces water loss, continuously replaced Stratum basale Cells divide, move to skin surface, keratinize; include melanocytes Dermis: rests on subcutaneous tissue and Sits under epidermis: dense, fibrous adipose cells connective tissue, collagen, blood vessels; hair follicles, sensory cells e.g. Pacinian corpuscle and sweat (sebaceous) glands Hydrostatic Skeleton (eg. Cnidarians, flatworms, Cold-blooded organisms and soft-bodied animals; annelids, roundworms epidermis with longitudinal contractile fibers encloses circular contractile gastrodermis; fluid filled Exoskeleton (e.g. protostomes) External skeleton, secreted by epidermis, supports and protects; chitin (insects), CaCO3 (mollusks), silica (diatoms) Endoskeleton (e.g. deuterostomes) Bumps and spines of Ca2+ covered by epidermis (echinoderms), cartilage (sharks) or living tissue; Ca2+ impregnated bone (humans) The Human Axial Skeleton (Fig 40-5a) Skull: 8 cranial, 14 facial Vertebral Column: 32-33 vertebrae · Cervical – neck: 7 · Thoracic – chest: 12 · Lumbar – back: 5/6 · Sacrum – pelvis: 5 · Coccyx: 3 Thoracic (rib) cage: supports chest wall, internal organs, and diaphragm: · Sternum (breastbone) · Thoracic vertebrae (part of vertebral column) together with 12 pairs of ribs (ribs 11, 12 are “floating” – buried in muscle; not attached to sternum And hyoid bone – in throat; ossicles The Human Appendicular Skeleton (fig 40-5b) Pectoral (shoulder) girdle” · Scapulas (shoulder blades) clavicles (collar bones), humerus, radius, ulna – 2 of each · Carpal (wrist) bones – 8 in each · Metacarpals leading to fingers – 5 in each hand · Phalanges, or finger joints – 14 on each hand · Each finger has 3 phalanges, thumb has 2 Pelvic (hip) girdle: · Os coxae, or hip bones – 2 of each · Femur, patella, tibia, fibula – 2 of each · Tarsals (ankle bones, including heel bone, calcaneus) – 7 for each leg · Metatarsals (5) and phalanges (14) – for each foot · Great toe has 2 phalanges, the other digits have 3 Ligaments · Strong dense structures made of connective tissue that stabilize and connect bone to bone across the joint 3 Types of Joints Immovable joints · Sutures of skull, pelvis eventually cement together with fibrous threads, connective tissue (e.g. babies skull allows growth; hydrocephalis) Slightly movable joints · Between vertebrae (limited range of movement due to presence of cartilage) Freely movable joints · Articular cartilage at junction of two or more bones, enclosed by joint capsule (lined with membrane that secretes synovial fluid e.g. knee, elbow, wrist · RA and inflammation, osteoarthritis (cartilage in joint wears away and bones rub together) The radius is an example of a long bone (Fig 40-6) · Periosteum: connective tissue membrane (covers almost all of every bone in body); muscle and tendons are attached to it · Can produce new bone (periosteal reaction to bumping, tearing, inflammation, cancer, diseases) · Diaphysis: main shaft of bone · Epiphysis: expanded ends · Metaphysis: growth center between the epiphysis and diaphysis in childhood, that is lost in adulthood (18-25yr) Bone Marrow: within the long bones are 2 types • Yellow: has fatty connective tissue and fills the marrow cavity, increases as we get older • During starvation, the body uses the fat for energy • Red: produce all erthrocytes, platelets, and most leukocytes (white blood cells) which they migrate to the blood to do their special tasks Long Bone consists of: • Spongy bone: interior contains red bone
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