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01:119:115 (825)
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GENERAL BIOLOGY Notes (Part 17) - 4.0ed the course!

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
01:119:115
Professor
A L L
Semester
Fall

Description
Community ecology 12/06/2013 Community Group of populations of different species living + interacting in same place + time Communities have characteristic structure + function Structure – number + type of species; relative abundance of each species Function – interaction b/w species, energy + nutrient flow; resilience Relationship b/w species in community = interspecific interactions Either positive, negative, or have no effect on species survival Include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis, + facilitation Competition Inter­specific competition (­/­ interaction) – species compete for a resource in short supply Strong competition can lead to competitive exclusion (local elimination of competition species) Predation  (+/­ interaction)  One species (predator) kills + eats another species (prey) Prey display various defensive adaptations (hiding, running, herding, screaming, etc.) Some animals also have morphological physiological defense adaptations Cryptic coloration Aposematic coloration Batesian mimicry: a harmless species mimics a harmful one Mullerian mimicry: two unpalatable species mimic each other Figure 54.5 Herbivory (+/­ interaction) One species (herbivore) eats part of a plant or alga Has led to evolution of plant mechanical + chemical defenses Herbivore adapt, in turn, to plant defense Symbiosis Two or more species live in direct + immediate contact w/ one another Mutalism (+/+ interaction) – both species benefit from interaction Obligate mutalism – one species cannot survive w/o the other Facultative mutalism – both species can survive alone Commensalism (+/0 interaction) – one species benefits + other is neither harmed/helped Parasitism (+/­ interaction) – one species (parasite) gets nourishment from another species (host) Host is harmed in process Endoparasites (live inside body of host) Exclusion can occur b/c species often occupy a different ecological niche within local environment Ecological niche How a species uses + alters biotic + abiotic resources An organism’s ecological role within an environment Resource partitioning Differentiation of ecological niches enabling coexistence of similar species with community Figure 54.2 A species fundamental niche may differ from its realized niche as a result of competition Fundamental niche – niche potentially occupi
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