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01:119:116 (653)
Lecture 26

01:119:116 Lecture 26: Lecture 26 - Blood & Immunity
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
01:119:116
Professor
Dr.Christy Beal
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 26 - Blood & Immunity I. Components of Blood A. Plasma Components ➢ ~ 5 liters of blood ➢ Blood functions: ○ Transport ○ Fluid balance ○ Pathogen defense ➢ Composition: ○ Cells & plasma ➢ ~ 90% water ➢ Inorganic salts (blood electrolytes) ○ Buffer pH ○ Osmosis ○ Interstitial fluid composition (Mg , Na ) ➢ Plasma proteins: ○ buffers ○ Albumin ○ Immunoglobulins (=antibodies) ○ Apolipoproteins - fat transport ○ Fibrinogens - clotting ➢ Substances carried by blood B. Cellular Components ➢ Produce in bone marrow ➢ Erythrocytes (RBCs) ○ Structure: ■ Hemoglobin ■ Biconcave disk ■ Non-nucleated (in mammals) ■ No mitochondria ○ Function: ■ Carry O2 ➢ RBC production controlled EPO ○ Erythropoietin ○ EPO made in kidney ○ Negative feedback ■ Reads O 2evels in blood ○ Why do some athletes inject EPO? ➢ Leukocytes (WBC) ○ Defense (next lecture) ➢ Platelets ○ Partial cells ○ Pinching off parts of large cells in bone marrow ○ No nuclei ○ Aid in clotting ➢ Fig 42.16 II. Blood Clotting A. Platelet Plug Formation ➢ Where you 1st suffer a wound ○ ~ 30 different clotting factors ➢ 1st - Platelet plug formation (temporary) 1. Blood vessel constricts 2. Platelets stick to collagen 3. Platelets attract more platelets ➢ Fig 42.18 B. Fibrin Clot Formation ➢ 2nd - Fibrin clot formation (permanent) ➢ Clotting factors, Ca , and platelet compounds ○ Prothrombin → thrombin (requires Vitamin K) ○ Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen to fibrin (insoluble) ○ Long threads ○ Forms fibrin clot ➢ Fig 42.18 ➢ Problems with clotting: ➢ Hemophilia → one factor is missing ➢ Thrombus - clot blocks flow III. Cardiovascular Disease A. Atherosclerosis ➢ Inner lining of blood vessels smooth ➢ Atherosclerosis - (scleria means?) ○ Fatty deposits, cholesterols ○ Plaque grows on arterial lining ■ LDL - low density lipoprotein “bad”
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