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01:119:116 (653)
Lecture 25

01:119:116 Lecture 25: Lecture 25

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Biological Sciences
Gregory Transue

Lecture 25 I. Basics of Circulatory System A. Types of Circulatory System -some animals do not have a circulatory system -cnidaria: diploblastic, gastrovascular -takes place of circulatory system -use hydrostatic skeleton to move things throughout body -flatworms: gastrovascular cavity -nematudes: fluid in pseudocoleom -3 basic components: -fluid: to stay in pathway -interconnecting vessels -pump: 4 chamberpump to move fluids around body to lungs-> heart->around body- >deoxygenated blood to lungs -2 basic types of circulatory systems -open: hemolymph -bathes tissues -closed: blood -straight to cells B. Vertebrate Circulation -closed system=cardiovascular system -blood -blood vessels (3 types) -arteries-away from heart -capillaries -veins -arteries-> arterioles->capillaries->tissues->venules->veins -heart-2 or more chambers -atria: receives blood from tissues -ventricles: pump to arteries -pericardium-connective tissue sac- encloses heart C. Comparison of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems -fish-low metabolic rate, slow system -simple circulation -2 chambered heart: 1 atrium, 1 ventricle -heart-> gills-> body-> heart -deoxygenated blood that enters atrium and ventricle -pathway to ventricle-> artery because moving away from heart -amphibian: low metabolic rate, slow system -double circulation- 3 chambered heart- 2 atria, 1 ventricle -pulmo-cutaneous circuit -O2 picked up from skin -systemic circuit: to body -returns to right atrium -ridge in ventricle: separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood -mammals and birds: endotherm; double circulation; more vigorous blood flow -4 chamber: 2 atria, 2 ventricles -systemic and pulmonary circuits completely separate -most efficient at delivering O2: faster and stronger II. Human Heart A. Heart Structure -cardiac output: blood pumped per min by left ventricle -heart rate x stroke volume -heart rate = strokes per minute -about 60-100 bpm -stroke volume: amount of blood pumped in single contraction -4 valves: prevents backflow -between atrium and ventricle: blood flows Atrium-> ventricle -atrioventricular valves: right atrium and ventricle (tricuspid), left atrium and ventricle (mitral) -semilunar-ventricules to heart exit -pulmonary valve and aortic valve -
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