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Lecture 10

01:119:131 Lecture 10: Lecture 4/19/17

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Biological Sciences

I. Figure 17-9 A. T dependent require help from T cells B. B cell has IgM that recognizes specific antigen that the B cell can respond to C. Once antigen binds to the monomer, B cell in conjunction with MHC II, calls T helper for help → secrete lymphokines . later on mature to plasma cells- cells that secrete the antibodies. Some go off as memory cells. D. T cells- maturation, clonal expansion, B cells.. IgM to IgG.. IgM is too big, must do class switch so it can go out of blood and go into tissue II. Figure 17-10 A. Specific antibody (IgA,IgG,IgM) B. IgA 1. Bacterial toxins → neutralization.. Neutralize the toxin, taking it out the system → ingestion by macrophage C. IgG… can also neutralize 1. Bacteria in extracellular space → opsonization → ingestion by macrophage D. IgM (5 monomers brought together.. Can pick 10 identical antigens) 1. Bacteria in plasma → Immune complexes..complement→ lysis and ingestion III. Figure 17-11 A. Stem cell in embryo 1. Bone marrow or fetal liver B. Assortment of B cells that product specific antibodies 1. Clonal deletion of B cells that produce antibodies against self C. B cells that produce antibodies against non self (foreign) antigens 1. Clonal selection and stimulation by T helper cells 2. Presentation of antigen peptide by macrophage D. Sensitized B cells (Responsive to antigen 1. Memory cells → B cells that produce antibodies against foreign antigens E. Plasma cells F. Antibodies G. Neutralization, opsonization, cell lysis IV. Wanted to develop a “magic bullet” antibody A. Want specificity for let’s say a tumor cell that would deliver a toxic payload B. C. Procedure to make monoclonal antibodies 1. Only see one antigen 2. Want it to be tumor cell antigens not on healthy cells D. Figure 17-12 1. Inject antigen of interest into mouse… b cells respond to antigen 2. Use myeloma cells in tissue culture.. Fuse them with continuous cell line and ultimately find a cell line that expresses antigen responding antibody that was going to be growing indefinitely V. Figure 17-13 A. Activation of helper T cells 1. Antigen presenting cells… present not onto to b cells but t cells 2. Antigen sits in pocket of MHC II 3. IL2 set motion of T cells to propogate a) Either mature into TH1 cell (T delayed hypersensitivity cells) (1) Help macrophages that are in need… harboring mycobacteria (2) Secretes all kind of factors to attract more macrophages to the site, work harder to make toxins to get rid of pathogen inside macrophages (3) ex/ poison ivy → takes 12-24 hours to see topical reaction.. Delayed.. Delayed hypersensitivity b) TH2 (1) Antigen presented to T helper cells not only through B cell trying to respond to antigen but also up here through the macrophage B. Activation of cytotoxic t cells 1. MHC I protein a) In all of our cells 2. Perforin a) Calls hole in aberrant cell, ultimately dies 3. Natural killer cells a) In lymphoid cell lines b) Do not need to be presented to the antigen from the macrophage c) Can respond directly to any aberrant cell in our body that is displaying an antigen in the pocket of MHC I d) Important to see aberrant cells (virally infected/tumor cell), don’t need to be presented without seeing antigen can pick it up themselves 4. B cells release antibodies that attach to antigen, T cell directly goes to VI. T cells A. T helper B. T cytotoxic C. TH1 D. T regulatory (suppress) VII. Figure 17-5 A. Stem cells B. Lymphocyte 1. Thymus or influence of thymic hormones C. T cells with receptors for antigens 1. Processing of antigen by antigen-presenting cells and presentation to T cell D. Activation of immature T cells → production of memory cells → ^ 1. MHC II peptide a) Activation of helper T cells CD4 (1) TH1 (a) Killing of cells (2) TH2 (a) B cell stimulation and suppression of humoral immunity 2. MHC I peptide a) Activation of cytotoxic T cells CD8 (1) Killing of all cells (2) B cell stimulation and suppression of humoral immunity 3. ? a) Activation of NK cells (1) Killing of cells VIII. Table 17-5 A. Don’t really need to know but know why it’s important… IX. Figure 17-17 A. Summary of viral infection 1. Innate a) Mucous, interferons, cough.. Grab virus before it gets established b) Or secretory IgA pulls it out before virus can hook to our cells 2. Circulating antibodies will destroy viruses inside blood vessels 3. If it enters our tissues like liver, we get liver infection. Infected cells that display viral antigens on their membranes are destroyed by cytotoxic T cells a) NK cells can
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