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Lecture 11

01:119:131 Lecture 11: Viruses

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Biological Sciences

Name of Targets/Caus Description Effects/compli Treatment Transmissio Virus e cations n HIV 1 Cells of the Virus is a Resistant to Cocktail of Sexual HIV 2 immune retrovirus, antiviral antiviral contact system such integrates into compounds fast drugs to (Figure as the host cell’s treat Blood 18.25) macrophages DNA HIV infected infection and T cells people often Dirty needles which not only Opportunistic develop the Attenuated- makes a infections malignancy immune Mother to person called Ka\ response child immunocompr Reverse posi’s Sarcoma but no omised but transcriptase which is caused infection- helps spread makes lots of by the Human taking a the infection to errors when herpesvirus 8- virulent virus other organs copying RNA cause blood and making → DNA, vessels to grow it less variations into tangled harmful but occurs in the masses that are still keeping proteins on filled with blood, it alive, the virus easily ruptured mount surface so antibody antibodies and T cell cannot response→ recognize→ highly active results in high antiretroviral mutation rate therapy. Problem: First few can turn months- fight, back to wild flu like type, symptoms mutates then get sick with things Hard to people make normally vaccine won’t get sick for, herpes symptoms, kaposi's sarcoma, cancer, wasting disease- cannot metabolize food. AIDS Rubella Cross the Mildest Causes Mild: bed Airborne (German placenta human viral Congenital rest and measles) disease- skin Rubella medicine Mother to rash Syndrome due child to infection of a Virus is a Togavirus developing component Direct embryo across of the MMR contact the placenta vaccine, which can only means damage of embryo’s preventing organs because rubella they are developing and Virus is decrease T cell crippled to function and not cause antibody infection, production to mounts the extent that immune infants fail to response respond to vaccines Defections to baby (attenuated) Skin rash- exanthema, some females experience arthritis Measles/ Reaction of T Febrile Koplik’s spots Included in Air borne, rubeola cells with virus (Accompanie on the lips and the MMR direct contact infected cells in d by fever) cheek appear vaccine small blood disease with a before other vessels rash caused symptoms by the rubeola occur virus Measles Rash is red, encephalitis raised, (permanent compared to brain damage) rubella rash and subacute which is pink sclerosing and flat panencephalitis (fatal) Chicken Varicella- Varicella Complications Attenuated Direct pox zoster virus, pneumonia- like damage to vaccine contact, this extensive blood vessels airborne herpesvirus blood vessel causes chicken damage, can pox be fatal Resides in Shingles- ganglia of the lesions are in head and neck one area in its latent supplied by form but can particular be activated nerve and cause whereas shingles chicken pox, lesions occur everywhere Varicella virus- chicken pox, zoster virus cause shingles Smallpox Caused by One success Kill people who Vaccine - Direction variola virus story of were already Jenner, contact, ridding the immunocompro found that airborne human mised people who population of had cowpox a dread virus Pus-filled (less vesicles that severe) Successful spread around would be vaccination body immuned to program smallpox across the planet was required for this to happen Papillomav Many strains of Causes cancer Vaccine by Sexually irus (HPV) this virus, Merck called transmitted cause warts Lifetime! Warts Gardasil but two strains can disappear prevents Genital skin, number 16 and but virus still infection mucous 18 involved remains in with those membranes, with cervical surrounding strains but bodily fluids, cancer tissue and virus vaccine intercourse/o can reoccur appears to ral sex do nothing to an already established infection in a person Herpes Latent virus HSV1-cold Neonatal Latent, will sexually Simplex that resides in sores herpes never go transmitted Virus ganglia and HSV2- herpes away (HSV1+ can lead to hominis virus- Cold sores HSV2) more serious genital herpes complications like encephalitis, lung, liver, and spleen infections Cytomegal Cross placenta Approx. 80% Bad for patients Sexual ovirus and cause of adults are receiving transmission (CMV) severe carriers of thistransplant, damage to the human need to take fetus herpes virus-5 drugs to (HHV-5) suppress immune system and can’t fight off this virus as easily as a healthy person May not have symptoms, can go undiagnosed Rhinovirus Most common So many cause of a different cold (coryza) strains of this virus Corona virses makes it are second
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