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Lecture 1

01:146:328 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Eugene Odum, Arthropod, Toxocariasis

Cell Biology and Neuroscience
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Human Parasitology Lecture 1 9/6/17
Parasites and Human Health
I. World Health
a. Leading cause of death in US
i. Heart disease unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and
ii. Cancer gene mutations that are inherited or occur after birth
iii. Chronic lower respiratory diseases smoking and air pollutants
iv. Accidents poisoning, motor vehicle, falls
v. Strokes blockages of arteries, hypertension
vi. Alzheier’s – genetics? Environmental?
vii. Diabetes genetics, viruses?, obesity, physical inactivity
viii. Influenza/pneumonia viruses, bacteria
ix. Nephrites, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis autoimmune, viruses
x. Intentional self-harm (suicide) mental health disorders, drug addiction
b. Very few bacteria/viruses NO PARASITES
c. Leading causes of death in underdeveloped countries
i. Lower respiratory disease - viruses
ii. Diarrheal diseases viruses, bacteria, parasites leading cause of death
especially in children because of dehydration
iii. Stroke
iv. Heart disease
v. HIV/AIDS - virus
vi. Tuberculosis - bacteria
vii. Malaria - parasite
viii. Perterm birth complications
ix. Birth asphyxia and birth trauma
x. Road injury
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d. United Nations
i. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
1. Began in 2000
2. Target for completion 2015
3. 8 goals
a. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungry
b. Achieve universal primary education
c. Promote gender equality
d. Reduce child mortality
e. Improve maternal health
f. Combat HIV/AIDs and malaria
g. Ensure environmental sustainability
h. Global partnership for development
4. Goal 6 Big three
a. HIV/AIDs antiretroviral medications
b. Tuberculosis antibiotic and vaccine development
c. Malaria drugs for treatment and bed nets for prevention
ii. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
1. 17 goals
a. More specific than MDGs
b. MDGs = half way goals (eradicate EXTREME
c. SDGs = zero goals (no poverty, no hunge
D. Other tha ig three ost fudig has passed other diseases Neglected
Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
a. 17 diseases in 4 categories
i. Helminths worm
1. Foodborne tremetodiases (caused by trematodes) 56
million people infected
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2. Schstosomiases 200 million infected
3. Cysticerosis/Taunasis caused by Cestodes
4. Echinococaosis caused by Cestodes
5. STH infections Soil transmitted helminths nematode 1.5
Billion infected!
6. Lymphatic filariasis nematodes 900 million infected
7. Onchocerciasis - nematodes 90 million
8. Dracinculiasis
ii. Protozoa
1. Human African trypanosomiasis sleeping sickness 60
million people infected
2. Chagas disease 25 million
3. Leighmaniasis 350 million
iii. Bacteria
1. Buruli ulcer
a. Mycobacterium ulcerans
b. Produces mycolacatone toxin that results in lesions
and tissue death (suppresses immune system)
c. Can lead to long term disability and death
2. Leprosy (Hansen disease)
a. Mycobacterium laprae
b. Affects skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of
upper respiratory tract and eyes
c. NOT easy transmissible
d. IS curable
3. Trachoma
a. Chlamydia trachomatis
b. Leading cause of worlds infectious blindness
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