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01:160:163 (102)

Chemistry Lecture 1 - Basic Definitions, Scientific Method, S.I. based units, Dimentional Analysis

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Professor Marvasti

Lecture 1 Gen Chem for Engineers 01:160:159 Chemistry – the study of matter, its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy associated with these changes. Matter – anything that has mass and volume. Composition (of matter) – the types and amounts of simpler substances that make up the matter. Properties (both physical and chemical) – characteristics that give each substance a unique identity. Physical Properties – Properties that a substance shows by itself, without interacting with other substances. Chemical Properties – properties that a substance shows as it interacts or transforms into other substances. Scientific knowledge – testable, reproducible, explanatory, predictive, and tentative (can change as new discoveries are made). Scientific Method: 1. Conducting a hypothesis (a tentative explanation of facts and observations). 2. Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment (measurement – collect data). 3. Hypothesis is revised, and the process continues based on the observations. When the hypothesis successfully predicts what will happen, we designate it as a scientific law. (Scientific Law – a mathematical description of what will happen.) A Theory – A theory is an explanation of the (scientific) law. (Example) Boyle’s Law(scientific law): PV=k The Kinetic Molecular Theory (theory) is the best explanation for Boyle’s Law * NO HYPOTHESIS OR THEORY can ever be proven completely true, they can only be disproven * S.I. Based Units (System International) Physical Quality Unit Name Unit Abbreviation 1. Mass Kilogram Kg 2. Length Meter m 3. Time Second s 4. Temperature Kelvin K 5. Electric Current Ampere A 6. Amount of Substance Mole mol 7. Luminous Intensity Cardela cd Lecture 1 Gen Chem for Engineers 01:160:159 Common Prefixes used with S.I. units Prefix Prefix Word Conventional Notation Exponential Symbol Notation tera T Trillion 1,000,000,000,000 1 x 1012 9 giga G Billion 1,000,000,000 1 x 10 mega M Million 1,000,000 1 x 106 kilo k Thousand 1,000 1 x 103 2 hecto h Hundred 100
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