04:189:102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Payola, Wireless Telegraphy, Narrowcasting

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Wednesday, February 1, 2017
Introduction to Media
Lecture 2
Development of Radio
-War of the Worlds broadcast by Orson Welles (1938)
-People take the radio seriously. It has a real influence over them, because it is their
only source of international news. Audiences who tuned in late believed the world
was actually being attacked by aliens.
Telegraph
-Invented in 1840, it was an instantaneous mode of communication back in the day.
-Samuel More developed a way to transmit electrical impulses within wire, hooch let to
the discovery of morse code (dots and dashes).
-First wire was set in between Washington DC and Baltimore in 1844.
-In 1866 the first telegraph line was built transatlantic between Newfoundland and
Ireland.
-Communication was limited by the reach of the wires though.
Electromagentic Waves
- James Maxwell discovered these waves, which allowed wireless communication to
ships and other locations through the air.
The Innovators
-Marconi: Point to Point Telephony
-Lee Deforest: the audion tube
-Edwin Armstrong: FM radio
-David Sarnoff: concept of broadcasting
Marconi
-In the mid 1890’s, he developed wireless telegraphy and patented in 1896. He
relayed the first wireless signal across the Atlantic Ocean in 1901.
-Voiceless point-to-point communication.
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Wednesday, February 1, 2017
Deforest and Fessenden
-Developed wireless telephony, and allowed voice and music to be transmitted on
radio.
-Led to the sep from narrowcasting to broadcasting. But there was a problem with
interference and static.
-Many theorize that if ships had been required to have communication methods on
board and interference was corrected, not as many people would have died on the
Titanic.
First Regulations
-Radio Act of 1912
-Required licensing; given to every one who applied. It was believed that radio
should benefit society; it was a right, not a privilege.
-WWI impact
-Navy imposed security controls on information
-RCA (Radio Corporation of America)
-Private sector monopoly with government approval to dominate the industry.
-Aimed to standardized radio parts and control radio frequency in 1919
Evolution of Radio
-The first Pittsburgh commercial radio station announced the election results in 1920
-Previously radio was a wireless telegraph. In the 1920’s it was reinvented.
-Problem: Property of Market Forces or Run by Government?
Medium of the Depression
-Radio was cheap - cost less than $15.
-Vaudeville was dying, radio was taking over as the new entertainment in
communities.
-It provided an escape from harsh times and bad experiences
Building First Networks
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