11:216:101 Lecture 2: Science 1/26

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Rutgers University
Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources
S Sukhdeo

Clonal: all identical Darwin’s Quote 1. More are born than can survive; struggle to survive; (animals and plants) a. COMPETITION for resources b. Water, food, shelters, mating sites, mates, sunlight 2. Environmental resources are always limited a. Only so much rain, sunlight 3. Individuals of one species are variable a. Gene variations b. Gene pool= all the genes in a population c. Diversity within 1 species to ADAPT to environment (extremely unpredictable) 4. All variations must be heritable a. Must be able to pass down from one generation to the next Natural selection: differential (unequal) survival reproduction (offspring) of individuals with certain advantageous (cannot predict ahead of time, what the advantageous trait will be) traits will contribute disportionately to the makeup of ___ in the next generation - Bad eye sight a trait that would’ve killed you back millions years ago - We can’t breathe at the top of a mountians - Sherpa can, they have adapted to environment/altitude - Advantages-> offspring- some are going to carry advantageous trait 1. Deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) a. Sand Hills, Nebraska: ½ prairie grass, ½ sand dunes b. 10-15,000 yrs scrub desert during medieval warm period c. Quarts grain sand d. 2 color variant coats i. Top darkish brown/lightish brown ii. Belly fur: white e. Predators: snake, birds, coyote/foxes f. White mice die in grass; dark mice survive g. Dark mice die in sand dunes; light mice survive h. Variation of light and dark dorsal coat i. Mutation called Agouti Gene i. If this mouse had no color variation; they would only live in the prairie grass j. Agouti Gene: many animals have; light tan color i. Dogs: tan, sable ii. Cats: tan, tabby 2. Darwin’s finches a. Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: 26 different native bird species, 16 species of finches b. Island Daphne Major 900 acre island c. Peter & Rosemary Grant (Princeton U) 1973 lived on island d. 3 million years ago (MYA) e. Tag every single finch i. Medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) ii. Eat shell medium sized seeds f. Measured Beak length and depth g. Measure plants, seeds, fruits produced h. 1976 avg. 130mm rain each year i. 1977 24mm of rain i. Over 85% of medium ground finch DIED ii. Birds died because the plants and seeds they ate didn’t get enough water, plants died=birds died ii
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