14:332:231 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Digital Electronics, Or Gate, And Gate

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1.1 About Digital Design
Debugging: be a good troubleshooter
Business Requirements and Practices: non-engineering factors
Risk Taking: balance rewards and consequences
Communication: teamwork
1.2 Analog vs. Digital
Analog: process time-varying signals that can take on ANY value across a continuous
range of voltage, current, or other metric
Digital: taking on, at any time, only one of two discrete values (0 or 1) that can be
described as…
Examples of digital used in electronics
Video recordings
Audio recordings
Automobile carburetors
Telephone system
Traffic lights
Movie effects
Many of these examples were once analog and now digital
Reasons to favor digital over analog
Reproducibility of results: analog varies on other factors, however digital always
produces the exact same results
Ease of design: digital is logic, analog requires special math/insights
Flexibility and functionality: digital form simplifies problems to be solved using
logical steps
Programmability: digital design is carried out by writing programs in hardware
description languages (HDLs)
Speed: digital devices are very fast
Economy: digital is low cost, circuits that are used repetitively can be integrated
into a single chip
Steadily advancing technology: can make room for better technology in devices
that are digital
1.3 Digital Devices
Gates: most basic digital device; has one or more inputs and produces an output that is
a function of the current input value(s) using digital discrete values (0 or 1)
Called a combinational circuit
Depends only on the current combination of input values (called input
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