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Lecture 15

11:375:101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Typhoid Fever, Apicomplexa, Sewage Treatment


Department
Environmental Sciences
Course Code
11:375:101
Professor
Craig Phelps
Lecture
15

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Water Systems
Chapter 20.5: Water Pollution
20-5: Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment
“Purify” water for consumption
Potable Water
Sewage Treatment
Clean up waste to prevent pollution
Remove nutrients
Waterborne Disease
Infectious disease organisms
Contaminated drinking water
An estimated 1.6 million people die every year, mostly under the
age of five
Fecal Oral Route
Historic (and Present) Concerns
Cholera
Typhoid Fever
Hepatitis A
Salmonellosis
Bacterial Dysentery
Amoebic Dysentery
More Recent Outbreaks
Giardia
Cysts
Hikers
Cryptosporidium (sporozoan protozoa)
Oocysts
Milwaukee, WI, 1993 - 400,000 sick, 100 deaths
Sydney, Australia, 1999 - threatened Olympics
Giardia and Cryptosporidium
Breaking the Chain
Sick people excrete large numbers of pathogens
Poor sanitation allows pathogens into water
Inadequate water treatment does not remove all of the pathogens
Contaminated water makes many people sick
Sik people excrete large numbers….
Drinking Water Treatment
Goals

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Remove pathogens
Remove contaminants
Provide safe and clean water
Water Sources
Surface water
Lakes, rivers or reservoirs
Groundwater
Wells or springs
There Are Many Ways to Purify Drinking Water
Reservoirs and purification plants
Process sewer water to drinking water
Expose clear plastic containers to sunlight
The LifeStraw
PUR - chlorine and iron sulfate powder
Safe Drinking Water Act
1974 - US Safe Drinking Water Act
Sets maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for any pollutants that
affect human health
MCLs and MCL Goals
Heath-based
Secondary MCLs
Aesthetic and economic
MCLs
Microorganisms
Disinfectants
Disinfection byproducts
Inorganic chemicals
Organic chemicals
Radionuclides
Disinfection
Chlorine most common
Problem - chlorinated organics
Ozone also becoming common
Problems
Some chlorinated organics
No residual
UV
Works for Cryptosporidium
Home Filters
Consists of
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