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Lecture 19

11:375:101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Antimicrobial Resistance, Risk Management, Aids

Environmental Sciences
Course Code
Craig Phelps

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Health and Toxicology
Chapter 17: Environmental Hazards and Human Health
Core Case Study:Mercury’s Toxic Effects
All mercury compounds are toxic
Some much more than others
One third in the atmosphere comes from natural sources
Human activities provide the rest
Two main human exposures
Fish contaminated with mercury
Inhalation of vaporized mercury
Greatest risk is brain damage
17-1: What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?
We face health hazards from:
Biological factors
Pathogen - an organism that causes disease in other organisms
Chemical factors
Synthetic chemicals
Natural chemicals
Physical factors
Fire, earthquakes, volcanoes
Cultural factors
Unsafe working conditions, poverty
Lifestyle choices
Smoking, drinking too much alcohol
Risks Are Expressed as Probabilities
Probability of suffering harm from a hazard
Expressed as ratio or percentage
Risk assessment
Using statistical methods to estimate harm
Risk management
Deciding whether and how to reduce a particular risk
17-2: What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?
The most serious biological hazards we face are infectious diseases such as flu,
AIDS, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and malaria
Some Diseases Can Spread from One Person to Another
Infectious disease
Pathogen invades the body and multiplies
Viruses, bacteria, parasites
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