Lecture 1.docx

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Exercise Science and Sport Studies
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Sara Campbell

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Lecture 1. I. Biomechanics ■ biomechanics uses the applications of classical mechanics in the analysis of biological and physiological systems ■ research in biomechanics is aimed at improving our knowledge of the human body so we may then apply this knowledge to make our movements more efficient and combat those forces that may cause pathological conditions or injury II. different types of biomechanics ■ the principles of statics analyzes the magnitude and nature of forces that occur at the joint and muscle level ○ the purpose of statistics is to determine the efforts required for certain muscle groups to hold a specific joint or body part in position ○ we need to know the magnitudes of joint reaction forces and muscle tensions, the proper locations of muscle attachments, the weight of body segments and the location of their center of gravity ■ the principles of dynamics analyzes the motions of the static system during such movements as gait and has many applications in sport mechanics ○ breakdown a dynamic motor skill into static steps- need to know statics as a baseline for dynamic movement ■ the mechanics of solids provides the necessary tools for developing the field constitutive equations for biological systems that are used to evaluate their functional behavior under different load conditions ■ the principles of fluid mechanics have been used to determine blood flow through the circulatory system, airflow in the lungs, and the release of synovial fluid for joint lubrication ○ ex. in wb joints synovial fluid maintains cartilage health, if under stress may inject with fluid from a rooster to prolong the health of the cartilage ○ ex. ACL fx to prevent forward translation of the femur on the tibia but also creates a joint space for synovial fluid III. scalar and vector ■ the two basic concepts in biomechanics are scalar and vector ■ scalar quantities have magnitude such as mass, energy, and power ■ vector quantities have magnitude and direction such as force, moment, and acceleration ■ graphically, a vector is represented by an arrow in which the arrowhead determines the direction and multiple vectors must be distinguished by length with various degrees of magnitude IV. different vectors: figure 1.1 (exam*) ■ force vector- a force is a mechanical disturbance such as the white pool ball creating a force vector when it hits the black #8 ball or when a pitched ball hits the catcher's mitt ■ torque vectors are the rotational and twisting action of applied forces, an example is when someone opens a door that is on a hinge ■ moment vectors are the bending action that occurs with applied forces, an ex is someone jumping on a diving board V. magnitude of the torque or moment: figure 1.1 ■ M = dF ■ F is the magnitude of the force ■ d is the distance between the axis and the extended line of the force or the lever arm ■ M is the magnitude of the moment (same as torque) ■ ex. in picture is a tricep extension, joint axis is the lateral epicondyle VI. free body diagram: figure 1.2 ■ assists in identifying the forces and moments acting on individual parts of a system and to ensure the correct use of the equations of mechanics to utilize them ■ ex in picture- forces around/ at the elbow joint ○ F1- biceps ○ F2- brachialis ○ F3- brachioradialis VII. terms and definitions (*exam) ■ deformation- local shape change under the effect of applied forces (strain) ■ tension- occurs when t
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