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Lecture 6

01:460:206 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Tetrapod, Refraction, Anthracosauria

Geological Sciences
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Chapter 6 Invasion of the Land Terrestrial Ecosystem before the Dinosaurs
Evolution onto Land
o First plants, invertebrates, then vertebrates
o First plants must have been largely aquatic (swamps + marshes)
o Major characters of plants are solutions to life w/ air and on land
o Grow against gravity, leaves, roots
o Most major changes to plants already happened except flow plants
Problems with life on land
o No buoyancy; support needed
o Danger of drying out
o Extremes of temperature
o Gases behave differently
o No nutrients in air
o Animals only
Refraction of light
Hearing must be modified
Seafloor: physical substrate like land
Problem: breathing air
o Evolve lungs and nostrils
o Advantage to breathing air
Easier to extract O2 from air than water
Water is very dense and viscous
Water at best contains very little O2
Oxygen poor air is rare
Gills have to work hard to extract enough O2 from water
Seasonal O2 levels can decrease
Problem: Structural support
o Need limbs and vertebrate
o Transition from Fins to Limbs help hunt prey in shallow water
o Basking sunning to increase metabolism (aid digestion), limbs take pressure off
body to breath
o Reproduction most vulnerable during early life, shot land trips to spawn in small
Tetrapoda four feet
Vertebral Column
o Centrum
o Neural arch
Holospdonyly condition in which all of the vertebral elements are fused
o Only one centrum per vertebra
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