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Karin Stromswold

Psychology of Language Lecture 09/23/13 If we think of the phonemes of English and any human language that has been discovered so far can be defined by the three articulating sounds; the first one is the vibration of the vocal folds (which are VOICED), the second feature is the place of articulation. When a sound is made air is passing through the lungs and consonantal sounds are defined by the constriction somewhere in the tube which affects the shape of the sound waves, which leads to our perception of different sounds. Where does the air either become turbulent or get stuck? Think of the further to the left you are on the POAchart, are the ones which are closest to the front or bilabial (Pa,Ba, and Ma). In addition, our chart in the Fernandez and Cairns paper, they have added the sound Wa. This is where the most constriction is; this is no the IPAchart!!! The next category are the labialdentals which involve the bottom lip and the teeth. The next category is the dentals the phonemes in grey are the unvoiced and the ones not in grey are voiced (double check that statement). Thy and Thigh are minimal pairs. Thy is unvoiced, thigh is voiced. The unvoiced “th” is “theta”, the “th” The alveolar ridge; this is where the air becomes turbulent and the sounds are constricted. R’s and L’s as in River and Liver which The following category is the postalveolar: The sounds here include S from “Ship,” z as in “leisure,” “pleasure” ts as in “chin.” Little children who have not been brainwashed by English orthography will tend to spell the word “church” with a t-s-h. Dz as in “gin”. Palatals include: J as in “Johan” the Y sound. The velum includes the soft part past the hard palate: the K sound and G hits the roof of the velum. Eng (like an n with a tail) as in pang. Last but not least are the glottals; the sound made by “satin,” and “house.” In the example of the Xray of hePA, heTa, heKa (the vowels are moving back from the bilabial towards the velar. The third feature is the manner of articulation which refers to what is the nature of the turbulence or stop. Traffic jam analogy; different ways that commute to school can be messed up, two lane accident no traffic going by at all or traffic is generally slow. Think of manner of articulation as some sense of description of airflow problems that a sound might encounter. These are represented by the troughs. An oral stop is equivalent of three lane crash, nothing is getting through. Pa, Ba, Ta, Da, Ka,Ga are all oral stops. No air is getting through. The next trough the air flow problem is not as great. Fricative can be remembered with the word friction, stop and go tr
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