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Lecture 25

11:709:255 Lecture 25: M5L1 Neurological Conditions

Nutritional Sciences
Course Code

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Neurological Conditions Medical Nutrition Therapy
Neurodegenerative Disorders
- Multiple sclerosis
- Traumatic brain injury
- Spinal cord injury
- Dementia/Alzheimer’s
- Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)
- Parkinson’s Disease
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome
- Myasthenia Gravis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Definition: immune-mediated disease characterized by
destruction of the myelin sheath and formation of scar tissue
o May cause muscle stiffness or spasms; paralysis (typically
in the legs)
o 2.5 million worldwide; 350,000 in the US
- Etiology: genetic and environmental factors
- Nutritional implications
o Medication side effects
o Challenges to meal preparation
o Consistency modifications
o Weight gain

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- Nutrition diagnoses
o Inadequate or excessive intake
o Difficulty eating and preparing food
o Food-medication interactions
- Nutrition Intervention
o Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids
o Restriction of saturated fat
o Vitamin D and supplementation with antioxidants
o Weight management
o Regular exercise
Important for detection of declining ability to
acquire and prepare foods, manipulate utensils and
chew and swallow safely
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) acute injury
- Penetrating brain injury or closed-head injury
o Penetrating: broken skull, etc.
o Closed head: concussion is most common, not necessarily
visible trauma
- Primary brain injury vs secondary brain injury
o Primary:
o Secondary:
- Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
o Based on eye-opening response, verbal response and
motor response determines severity of brain injury
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