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Lecture 76

11:709:364 Lecture Notes - Lecture 76: Urinary Catheterization, Artificial Kidney, Erythema

Nutritional Sciences
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Renal Conditions
Major Functions of the Kidney
- Filtration: function of the nephron
- Regulatory: maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, pH;
selectively reabsorbs and excretes fluids and substances
- Excretory: rids body of excess fluids, electrolytes, and end
products of protein metabolism (urea, uric acid, creatinine)
o This is why kidney patients often have high creatinine levels
- Endocrine: secretes hormones
Acute Renal Failure
- Characteristics: sudden onset, usually reversible
- Causes:
o Reduced blood flow to the kidneys
o Nephrotoxins: poisons, medications, myoglobin (muscle
protein released after crushing injury)
o Blockage of urinary system after the kidneys: renal calculi,
mispositioned urinary catheter, congenital abnormality
Chronic Renal Failure
- Characteristics: gradual onset, irreversible
- Most common causes:
o Diabetes mellitus
o Hypertension
o Glomerular nephritis
o Polycystic kidney disease
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