Chapter 3 Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology.pdf

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Rutgers University
Professor Stephen Killianski

Chapter 3: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology (October 8, 2012) The Neuron, the Brain, and the Nervous Systems: Basic Structure and Function 1. Neurons 1. Interneurons 1. connects nerve cells in the central nervous system 2. Sensory Neurons 1. takes some sort of physical energy from the environment and transforms it into basic information sent to the brain 3. Motor Neurons 1. cause some kind of action in the body (i.e. causing muscles to relax or contract) 2. Structure of an Interneuron 1. Soma: cell body 2. Dendrites: radiate out of the neuron 1. they pick up signals from other neurons 3. Axon: extended tail like structure 1. transmits messages from one neuron to the next 2. have the myelin sheath 1. facilitates the transmition of signals to the next neuron network 4. Axon Terminals 1. don't actually touch next neuron in the network 1. gap known as the synapse 3. Resting Potential and Action Potential in a Neuron 1. Action Potential 1. change in the polarity of the neuron 1. from a negative (-65) charge to a positive charge (+45) and then quickly back to a negative charge 2. speed and amount fired can be affected by intensity of stimulus 2. How Neurons Fire 1. When at rest, the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside 2. positively charged particles enter 1. action potential initiated and neuron is depolarized 3. positively charged particles pushed outside neuron and neuron moves back toward its polarized
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