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Lecture 21

01:830:301 Lecture 21: Scenes, Picture Memory

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Lecture 21- Scenes: Picture Memory -extremely good memory for pictures -98% accuracy with ~600 pictures -85% with 2500 – 10,000 pictures -visual memory with these pictures is extremely good -look at image as a whole and not remember -scenes and individual objects Scene Perception - we can see the world in its entirety in rich visual detail - the rich visual detail we experience may be an illusion  in our consciousness - good at quickly extracting the gist and spatial layout of a scene Gist – main idea Spatial layout – if you have a mountain scene, you have a very different sense of space vs sitting in a small classroom -how structures and objects in the scene lay out -memory for pictures are good -we fail at change detection tests  are not very good at details and individual objects -attention is object based -if you have to split your attention between 2 objects or multiple objects you are bad at attending to all, good at extracting the gist and space of the scene, but not all at the same time -reason why we’re not very good at change detection test - bad at attending to many objects at once - in everyday life, the world can serve as a memory -really good at remembering pictures but bad at saying what changed in a photo  for example, if I’m looking here and I don’t remember what was going on in this part of the scene, unconsciously I would move my eyes and see what was happening, we don’t need to store in memory in detail Scenes: Change Blindness Importance of intervening blank screen Scenes: Change blindness -the bush disappeared in this pic -the engine of the plane has disappeared Motion Perception The visual disorder complained of by the patient was a loss of movement vision in all three dimensions. She had difficulty, for example, in pouring tea or coffee into a cup because the fluid appeared to be frozen, like a glacier. In addition, she could not stop pouring at the right time since she was unable to perceive the movement in the cup (or a pot) when the fluid rose. Furthermore the patient complained of difficulties in following a dialog because she could not see the movements of a face, and, especially, the mouth of a speaker. In a room where more than two other people were walking she felt veryinsecure and unwell, and usuallyleft the room immediately, because “people were suddenly here or there but I have not seen them moving.” The patient experienced the same problem but to an even more marked extent in crowded streets or places, which she therefore avoided as much as possible. She could not cross the street because of her inability to judge the speed of a car, but she could identify the car itself without difficulty. “When I’m looking at the car at first, it seems far away. But then when I want to cross the road, suddenly the car is very near.” She graduallylearned to “estimate” the distance of moving vehicles bymeans of the sound becoming louder - patient with motion agnosia (akinetopsia) Motion Perception -motion helps to: 1. Draw attention 2. Segment objects from background -if you have a tiger hiding in the bushes, because their shape is broken into pieces by the bushes but as soon as the tiger starts to move you can see the outline of their form 3. Relative depth (motion parallax) - ones that are stationary are farthest away, vice versa (the stars that are moving more are closer to us, the ones that are stationary are farther from us) 4. 3D shape (kinetic depth effect) – as soon as you put the dots in motion, you see a rotating 3D structure, but if you stop the motion you only see dots -motion provides information to
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