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Psychology (1,279)
01:830:301 (73)
Dobias (3)
Lecture

Sensation part 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
01:830:301
Professor
Dobias
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch. 9 HEARING-PHYSIOLOGY & PSYCHOSOMATICS Sound Waves • Amplitude: the magnitude of displacement (increase or decrease) of a sound pressure wave. It is perceived as “loudness” • Frequency: the number of times per second that a pattern of pressure change repeats. It is perceived as “pitch” • Complexity: Psychological aspects of sounds • Pitch: the psychological aspect of sound related mainly to perceived frequency • Loudness: the psychological aspect of sound related to perceived intensity (amplitude) • Timbre: the psychological sensation by which a listener can judge that two sounds with the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar. Timbre quality is conveyed by harmonics and other high frequencies Ear • Outer ear: the external sound-gathering portion of the ear, consisting of the pinna and ear canal o Ear canal: the canal that conducts sound vibrations from the pinna to the tympanic membrane and prevents damage to the tympanic membrane o Tympanic membrane: the eardrum; a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal. It vibrates in response to sound o Pinna: the outer, funnel-like part of the ear  Only mammals have pinna, and they vary in size and shape • Middle ear: an air-filled chamber containing the middle bones, or ossicles. The middle ear conveys and amplifies vibration from the tympanic membrane to the oval window o Ossicle: any of the 3 tiny bones of the middle ear  Malleus: Receives vibration from the tympanic membrane and is attached to the incus  Incus: the middle of the 3, connecting the malleus and the stapes  Stapes: connected to the incus on one end, the stapes presses against the oval window of the cochlea on the other end o Oval window: the flexible opening to the cochlea through which the stapes transmits vibration to the fluid inside o Acoustic reflex: a reflex that protects the ear from intense sounds, via contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles  Tensory Tympani: the muscle attached to the malleus; tensing decreases vibration  Stapedius: the muscle attached to the stapes; tensing the stapedius decreases vibration • Inner ear: a hollow cavity in the temporal bone of the skull,; the cochlea and the semicircular canals of the vestibular system o Cochlea: a spiral structure of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti o Helicotrema: the opening that connects the tympanic and vestibular canals at the apex of the cochlea o Reissner’s membrane: a thin sheath of tissue separating the vestibular and middle canals in the cochlea o Basilar membrane: a plate of fibers that forms the base of the cochlear partition and separates the middle and tympanic canals in the cochlea  The organ of Corti: a structure on the basilar membrane of the cochlea that is composed of hair cells and dendrites of auditory nerve fibers • Hair cells: any cell that has stereocilla for transducing mechanical movement in the inner ear into neural activity sent to the brain; some hair cells also receive inputs from the brain Auditory Brain Structures • Tonotopic organization: an arrangement in which neurons that respond to different frequencies are organized anatomically in order of frequency Psychoacoustics: the study of the psychological correlates of the physical dimensions of acoustics; a branch of psychophysics Ch. 10 HEARING IN THE ENVIRONMENT Inter-aural time difference: the difference in time between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other • Physiology: o Medial superior olive (MSO): a relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to detection of the interaural time difference  Neurons that respond when there is a time difference in eh input to each ear • Azimuth: the angle of a sound source on the horizontal plane relative to a point in the center of the head between the ears. It is measured in degrees with 0 degrees being straight ahead. The angle increases clockwise toward the right, with 180 degrees being directly behind • Elevation Inter-aural level difference: the difference in level between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other • Physiology o Lateral superior olive (LSO): a relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to detection of the interaural level difference  Neurons sensitive to differences in sound level in each ear  Excitatory inputs from ipsilateral ear and inhibitory from contralateral ear  Problem with using interneural time and level differences Con of Confusion: a region of positions in space where all sounds produce the same time and level (intensity) differences (ITDs and ILDs) Role of the Pinna • Measuring what enters the ear canal • Anechoic room • Directional transfer function: a measure that describes how the pinna, ear canal, head and torso change the intensity of sounds with different frequencies that arrive at each ear form different locations in space o How the body change the intensity of a sound Auditory Distance Perception • Inverse-square law: a principle stating that as distance from a source increases, intensity initially decreases much faster than distance increases, such that the decrease in intensity is equal to the increase in distance squared. This general law also applies to optics and other forms of energy Complex Sounds • Timbre: the psychological sensation by which a listener can judge that two sounds with the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar. Timbre quality is conveyed by harmonics and other high frequencies CH. 13 TOUCH Touch Physiology • Epidermis: the outer of two major layers of skin • Dermis: the inner of two major layers of skin, consisting of nutritive and connective tissues, within which lie the mechanoreceptors • Mechanoreceptors: a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical stimulation (pressure, vibration, or movement) o Meissner corpuscle: a specialized nerve ending associated with fast-adapting fibers that have small receptive fields o Ruffini ending: a specialized nerve ending associated with slowly adapting fibers that have large receptive fields o Pacinian corpuscle: a specialized nerve ending associated with fast adapting fibers that have large receptive fields o Merkel cell neurite complex: a specialized nerve ending associated with slowly adapting fibers that have small receptive fields • Thermoreceptors: a sensory receptor that signals information about changes in skin temperature • Nociceptors: a sensory receptor that transmits information about noxious (painful) stimulation that causes damage or potential damage to the skin • A-delta fibers: an intermediate-sized, myelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temperature signals • C-fibers: a narrow-diameter, un-myelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temperature signals • Somatosensory area 1: the primary receiving area for touch in the cortex • Somatosensory area 2: the secondary receiving area for touch in the cortex • Somatotopic: spatially mapped in the somatosensory cortex in correspondence to spatial events on the skin o Phantom limb: sensation perceived from a physically amputated limb of the body • Two-point touch threshold: the minimum distance at which two stimuli are just perceptible as separate o Highest acuity: fingertips, face, toes • Haptic perception: knowledge of the world that is derived from sensory receptors in skin, muscles, tendons, and joints, usually involving active exploration • Explanatory procedure: a stereotyped hand movement pattern used to touch objects in order to perceive their properties; each procedure is best for determining one or more object properties CH. 14 OLFACTION Olfactory Physiology: • Odor: the translation of a chemical stimul
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