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01:830:331 (75)

clicker questions.docx

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Rutgers University
Margaret Ingate

Exam #2 Clicker Questions October 6  Young infants’ abilities to manually explore objects are limited by o Lack of fine motor control of arms and hands  Young infants cannot reliably reach for and grasp objects (and their hands) to their mouths. A possible explanation is: o As a species specific movement pattern, it has some of the characteristics of a reflex o Somatic localization depends on fewer cortical connections than localization in external space o Prior learning of hand to mouth movement pattern  To determine if a young infant can distinguish between the faces of her parents, research could: o Present cropped pictures, with only internal features, side by side and record looking time.  Which is the best characterization of a full-term healthy neonate’s vision? o The infant processes outlines of objects but not interior detail o Color vision is limited  The proposal that humans have innate mechanisms for processing faces o Is consistent with core knowledge theory o Is plausible from an evolutionary standpoint o Would be supported by case studies illustrating double dissociation  Evidence that experience expectant plasticity plays at least some role in facial processing comes from o Studies of infant memory for monkey faces o Studies of infant memory for mothers’ faces o Studies of infant memory for fathers’ faces October 9  Researcher have been able to characterize infant vision using: o Preferential looking technique  At birth, a healthy newborn has the ability: o To control sucking rate, gaze direction and gaze duration  A baby’s sucking rate keeps melody A playing in headphones. After 12 repetitions of the melody, the sucking response falls off. Then the researchers present either the same melody in a different key or melody B, in the original key of the first melody. What is likely to happen? o Habituation to melody A o Dishabituation to melody B  A baby is seated in front of an experimental display. Two speaking faces, one angry, one smiling are presented on monitors, side by side. A central speaker projects a voice that says in an angry tone “Look at me right now!” Evidence for intramodal matching would be found it o The baby looked first and longer at the angry face  In the video with Esther Thelen, placing infants who no longer showed the stepping reflex on a treadmill o Caused the babies to start stepping  Cultural factors such as parental beliefs and practices o Interact with individual differences in infants to influence the timing of motor milestones October 14  Factors that influence when and how an individual infant becomes self-mobile include o Individual differences in strength and weight o Individual differences in motivation o Individual differences in physical environments  Pinker and Chomsky argue that to acquire language, a child needs o Language input  The degree or left-lateralization involved in second language processing is related to: o The age of acquiring the second language  Infant directed talk o Helps with word segmentation o Attracts infants’ interest o May help with the problem of reference  In the second half of the first year, infants o Lose the ability to notice phonemic distinctions that are not important in their native language October 16  Typi
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