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01:830:101 Lecture Notes - Myelin, Axon Terminal, Interneuron

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Professor Stephen Killianski

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Chapter 3: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology (October 8, 2012)
The Neuron, the Brain, and the Nervous Systems: Basic Structure and Function
1. Neurons
1. Interneurons
1. connects nerve cells in the central nervous system
2. Sensory Neurons
1. takes some sort of physical energy from the environment and transforms it
into basic information sent to the brain
3. Motor Neurons
1. cause some kind of action in the body (i.e. causing muscles to relax or
2. Structure of an Interneuron
1. Soma: cell body
2. Dendrites: radiate out of the neuron
1. they pick up signals from other neurons
3. Axon: extended tail like structure
1. transmits messages from one neuron to the next
2. have the myelin sheath
1. facilitates the transmition of signals to the next neuron network
4. Axon Terminals
1. don't actually touch next neuron in the network
1. gap known as the synapse
3. Resting Potential and Action Potential in a Neuron
1. Action Potential
1. change in the polarity of the neuron
1. from a negative (-65) charge to a positive charge (+45) and then
quickly back to a negative charge
2. speed and amount fired can be affected by intensity of stimulus
2. How Neurons Fire
1. When at rest, the inside is negatively charged relative to the
2. positively charged particles enter
1. action potential initiated and neuron is depolarized
3. positively charged particles pushed outside neuron and neuron
moves back toward its polarized state
4. neuron has finallyreturned to its initial polarized resting state
4. Synaptic Transmission
1. Neurotransmitters held in storage vesicles until they are released when the neuron
is stimulated
2. Action potential stimulates the release of neurotransmitters across the synapse
3. Neurotransmitters binds to receptor sites on the dendrites of the next neuron,
causing a change in potential
1. Receptor sites are unique for every neurotransmitter
1. Excitatory Neurotransmitter
1. drives the post action potential in the post-synaptic neuron
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